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Management Styles

International Management Styles

Management Styles
What are they?
They are strategies, efforts, or direction used to create a more efficient and humane workplace whilst sustaining a profitable status. All of the aforementioned while still being able to create methods to deal with individual cases, ensure smooth running, respect local culture, and be feasible. Ideal:
the master is available to all people and doesnt reject anyone
- Lao Tzu

Different Styles
Many styles have been identified either as implemented and working or as Implemented and abandoned:
Assertive, Autocratic, Coaching, Country Club, Directing, Delegating, Laissez Faire, Participatory.

A Simpler Approach
I believe there are three basic styles directing, discussing and delegating. The 3-Ds of Management Style. (Thornton)
Paul B. Thornton

Major control in managements hands Managers assign roles and responsibilities, set standards, and define expectations. Appropriate when specific orders have been given to perform specific tasks.

Communication: Precision in communication critical. Usually in the form of directions from management. Goal-Setting: Short term goals set by management. Decision Making: Management makes most decisions. Monitoring Performance: Control points to monitor performance. Rewards and Recognition: Management is happy when directions are followed precisely.

People take time to discuss relevant issues Employees and managers can present ideas, ask questions, listen, provide feedback, challenge assumptions and coach as needed. Managers usually facilitate and provide feedback during meetings.

Communication: More about people and their ideas. Gives a way for people to be heard. Goal-Setting: Employees tend to be more committed to their goals through helping set them. Decision Making: Everyone is involved in the decision making process. Monitoring Performance: Performance monitored by employees and managers. Rewards and Recognition: Openness, social skills, and contributions to discussions are recognized.

Expectations established by management. Employees autonomous for the most part. Responsibility transferred from management to employee. Appropriate when employees are trained and experienced at what they do. If there is anything that a man can do well, I say let him do it. Give him a chance.
- Abraham Lincoln

Communication: Varies depending on situation, can be one way or two way. Goal Setting: Goals may be established by managers or by employee management groups. Decision Making: Employees make most decisions themselves. Managers try to avoid reverse delegation. Monitoring Performance: Managers specify types of monitoring vehicles and require timely feedback, specific to their demands. Rewards and Recognition: Managers reward efficiency and excellence in autonomy.

American Management Styles

Employee Centered Approach

Management Centered Approach

Employee Centered
The more employees are involved and recognized, the more productive they are likely to be.

Management Centered (Top Down Approach)

Less widely used due to recurring lack of employee motivation. Quite often used in small business when management isnt fully aware that motivating factors largely to productivity. Necessary for organizations such as the military.

Employee Centered Approach

Management by Objectives Employee Recognition Programs Employee Involvement or Participative Management

Management By Objectives

Management By Objectives
Concise statements of expected accomplishments made by management and employees

Goal Specificity Participative Decision Making An Explicit Time Period Performance Feedback

Health Care Organizations Educational Institutions Government Offices Non-profit Organizations

Employee Involvement Programs

(Participative Management)

Employee Involvement Programs (Participative Management)

Subordinates share a significant degree of decision-making power.

3 Major Types
Representative Participation Quality Circles Stock Ownership Plans

Representative Participation
workers are represented by a small group of employees who actually participate,

Quality Circles
a group of eight to ten employees and supervisors who have a shared area of responsibility, who meet regularly to discuss quality problems, investigate the causes of these problems, and propose solutions,

Stock Ownership Plans

Used to create the feeling of personal ownership which should in turn lead to employee concern with how well the company is producing.

The U.S. in the Big 3

All three styles are used in the USA Tendency of managers to adopt style according to requirements of business

German Management Style

1.Vocational Training (Thoroughness & Consistency) 2.Respect for Competence (no-nonsense production culture) 3. Formalized, hands-on Production Management

Vocational Training (Thoroughness & Consistency)

Apprentice System German Medieval Guilds (Meister Qualification) Technical Expertise of Managers (Technical Background)

Apprentice System
Best vocational training system in Europe Nearly 400 Qualifications On the job training 70% industrial workers go through system & passed Viable relationship between Training & Employment System a. Government b. Employers Association c. Trade Unions

German Medieval Guilds (Meister Qualification)

Promotes technical workmanship 2/3rds of German Supervisors hold a Meister Certificate One of the foundations of efficiency & productivity of German industry a. Production automatization & logistics b. Organizational methodology c. Leadership Technical knowledge & engineering skills a. Continuously challenged with new procedures, tools, techniques

Technical Expertise of Managers (Technical Background)

Known as specialists Little belief in added value of a generally oriented management education Professional criteria a. Quality of skill & amount of experience (most important) b. Managers chosen for positions base on expert knowledge

Respect for Competence (no-nonsense production culture)

Workmanship Wide Span of Control Loyal Managers (Comparing to Anglo-Saxon Managers) Quality & Innovation Effective Labor Relations

Highly rewarded and respected, high quality Technical & professional excellence is valued & encouraged Enhances potential for satisfying intraorganizational relationships Basic attitude is relatively favorable & respectful of expert knowledge

Wide Span of Control

If personnel highly qualified, then little need for staff personnel Avg. proportion of staff personnel in German firms less than 30% Firms have 1 layer of supervision (British/French have at least 2) Employees are relatively autonomous (in executing their work) Exercise greater job discretion

Loyal Managers (Comparing to Anglo-Saxon Managers)

Average tenure in one firm is 8 yrs, compared to 3 in US Managers select & train their own replacements Implement Stellvertreter Principle (Shadowworker)

Stellvertreter Principle (shadowworker)

Managers select and train their own replacements Enhances the continuity of decision making while promotion ploys and insecurity around who is succeeding whom Overall, potential successor can temporarily experience his or her future position

Quality & Innovation a. Product oriented & complete on quality than price Effective Labor Relations a. Less preoccupied with labor disputes b. Industry-wide range bargaining w/ trade unions c. Gives employees right to elect # of non executive directors to firms mgmt board

Formalized, Hands-on Production Management

Degree of Formalization Consider job descriptions & clear cut procedures being of great importance

Degree of Formalization
Regard to instructions, tasks, duties & rights Not inclined to improvise, rather rely on rules & regulations Reduce uncertainties on shop floor Faithful to deadlines Production departments are more central in their organizational functioning

German Management related to Big Three Management Styles

Contain elements from Directing style by effective communication from manager to employee, accomplishing goals by deadlines and monitoring performance with feedback by maintaining control Contain elements of Discussing style by giving employees a chance to communicate their views with manager, decision-making from learning in training and monitoring performance with feedback by discussing steps to maintain or increase productivity Contain elements of Delegating style by communication with taking necessary steps in one way, goal setting with understanding of the desired output in productivity and rewards with recognition by employees finding ways to get the job done from previous experiences or training

South Africa
Since the first all race elections in 1994 South Africa has been struggling to manage its tremendous cultural diversity of its population.

Because they have such a diverse population, this calls for a diversity when it comes to management practices. There are three approaches to management that are prevalent in South Africa.
Eurocentric Afrocentric Synergistic inspirational

The Eurocentric Approach

This is a more western approach to management. It is based on western value that power is given to those that show individualism and related self-centered concepts.

The Eurocentric Approach

A key point in this approach is forming an opposition. Adversarial relationships are formed between managers and the managed, buyers and suppliers, whites and blacks, etc.

The Afrocentric Approach

Afrocentricity is a concept that uses Africa has a home base in addressing challenges whatever the nature. The Ubuntu value system is a key component to the concept of Afrocentricty. Ubuntu implies beliefs that man is part of the social fabric and that everybody needs to find out where their place is.

The Afrocentric Approach

Using this approach everyone in the organization has a sense of belonging. Management is approachable and the atmosphere is informal with a free flow of information. The atmosphere gives a good sense of community and there are many relationships among co-workers.

The Synergistic Inspirational Approach

Based on the acknowledgment that South Africa must understand and take advantage of its dual heritage. They have to integrate their African practices, values and philosophies with Western management styles.

The Synergistic Inspirational Approach

Organizations need to seek unity and diversity Trust needs to be built and people need to have respect for different values. People have to also be willing to open up and learn new ways of completing tasks.

South African Styles in the Big 3

Eurocentric approach Directing Afrocentric approach Discussing Synergistic inspirational approach Discussing

Japanese Management Styles

Forces Shaping Japanese Management Practices

Collective mentality (Confucianism) Great persistence (Zen Buddhism) Social reciprocity Culturally homogeneous society Appreciation for education and learning

(Forces cont.)
Industrial Organization
Keiretsus - businesses connected with other firms through mutual trading ties and shareholdings

Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) primary responsibility was formulating and implementing international trade policy

General Management Practices

Organizational Structure
Unusually large number of vertical levels Overlapping organizations Corporate research units reporting to top management levels

Manufacturing Systems
Just-in-time manufacturing and purchasing (JIT) Total quality control (TQC) Continuous improvement through the use of suggestion systems and quality circles Research & Development A reputation as heavy investors in R & D

Human Resources Management

The competitive advantages of the Japanese have often been attributed to superior human resource management systems Lifetime employment and generalist career paths Seniority-based evaluation, promotion and compensation systems

(HRM cont.)
Company unions
Previous unions were anti-business Presently a supporting link in their integrated human resource practices.

Women as temporaries and support groups

Hired as clerical staff Expected to resign when married Managerial training centers around support activities

Future Japanese Management System

Japanese management systems are adopting Western practices Japanese companies with Western operations and joint ventures has increased rapidly Young professionals and managers, especially women, prefer a more Western style of management

(Future cont.)
Demographic, structural and economic change rapidly aging work force and a rising hourly wage Japans passion for learning and enrollment in western educational programs, has highlighted for its managers many of the weaknesses of the present Japanese system, and is stimulating change

Japan in the Big 3

Japanese markets also employ all three techniques depending on type of business

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