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LAN Switching and WAN Networks

LAN Switched Networks

Topic & Structure of the lesson


LAN Switched Networks

Basic Model of LAN Switch Additional Vendor Enhancements to LAN Switches

Layer Three Switches

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Learning Outcomes
LAN Switched Networks

At the end of this module, YOU should be able to:


Explain the key components of LAN switches Explain the advantages of LAN switches Explain the proprietary enhancements to LAN switches Explain the different types of layer three LAN switches

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Key Terms you must be able to use


LAN Switched Networks

If you have mastered this topic, you should be able to use the following terms correctly in your assignments and exams:

Forwarding Logic Operation Forward/Filter logic Learning logic Port interface Source address table Store and Forward versus Cut Through

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Main Teaching Points


LAN Switched Networks

Components

Advantages of LAN Switches


Port Trunking Port Mirroring Alarm Limits Store and Forward versus Cut Through Pure Routers Embedded Routers Hybrid Layer Three Switches
CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Components
LAN Switched Networks

Two major components to any switch:

Fowarding logic
Input/Output ports

The forwarding logic defines the type of switch, rather than the physical interfaces. Forwarding Logic Operation

The overall process known as transparent bridging To understand how LAN switches can be technically

invisible (refer to figure)


The forwarding logic component exists at layer two (refer to figure)

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Components (LAN Switch Bridge logical model)


LAN Switched Networks

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Components
LAN Switched Networks

Several key components in forwarding logic of a LAN

switch:

Forward/ Filter logic Learning logic Port interface Source address mode decides fate of packets received

Forward/Filter logic

destination address examined by forwarding logic,


and compared to entries in source address table (SAT) Three outcomes:

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Components
LAN Switched Networks

a) destination address is found and location of the


destination is on a port other than the one received b) destination address is on the same port as the current packet c) SAT contains no information about the destination address

Learning logic

The learning logic enables the switch to gather endsystem MAC address and locations to populate the SAT.

This learning is done on every packet received, regardless whether the packet will be filtered or forwarded.

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Components
LAN Switched Networks

Port interface

This component is the logical interface into the physical port. It performs packet translations between technologies

and interfacing into the MAC layer rules of technologies.

Source address table


LAN switches intelligently control packet flow based on this table.

The format of the table consists of a list of MAC addresses of end systems and the associated port where they were last heard.
Entries in this table have an associated age, which, when expired, allows the switch to discard that MAC address information.

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Components (LAN Switch bridge forwarding logic)


LAN Switched Networks

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Components (Forwarding Logic Options)


LAN Switched Networks

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Components
LAN Switched Networks

Input/Output Ports
Two categories of ports: Access ports and Network uplink ports.

Access ports are the physical interfaces a switch uses to connect to end systems on the LAN. These ports must connect to the same LAN technology as the end system.

Network uplink ports are those ports that will connect the LAN switch to other LAN switches in the switch fabric.

It is usually desirable to have a higher-capacity technology used on the network ports than on access ports. Why so?

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Components (Access & Network Uplink port relationships)


LAN Switched Networks

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Advantages of LAN Switches


LAN Switched Networks

a) Transparent ability to increase capacity of network for unicast communication.


b) Able to make intelligent decisions about where a packet should be sent.

c) It is able to keep communication between users away from other users on the network.
d) With its operation in layer two of OSI model, they are protocol independent and their operation is essentially transparent to the end users. e) It brings significant performance and capacity improvement to a network without significant network reconfiguration.

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Proprietary Enhancements to LAN Switches


LAN Switched Networks

Port Trunking
Is a mechanism by which several physical links are made to appear as a single link to the spanning tree algorithm.

The mechanisms to do this are very different, depending on the vendor, and are generally not supported on all LAN switches.

Some vendors will provide mechanisms for combining several ports using a manual configuration method, while others provide more automated methods.

Port Mirroring It refers to troubleshooting and monitoring tool for switched LANs.

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Proprietary Enhancements to LAN Switches: Port Trunking


LAN Switched Networks

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Proprietary Enhancements to LAN Switches: Port Trunking (to eliminate backbone congestion)
LAN Switched Networks

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Proprietary Enhancements to LAN Switches


LAN Switched Networks

In a shared access environment, common troubleshooting techniques involve use of LAN analyzers on segments with problems.

Most vendors offer a tool known as port mirroring, or traffic redirection, to examine the data traversing a switched LAN. (e.g.: Bit level port mirror, conversation taps and packet-level port mirror)

Alarm Limits Is introduced into LAN switches to provide some protection from station failure.

It is a simple mechanism in which the LAN switch monitors ports for various statistics, such as broadcast rate, errors, and so on.

If that statistic reaches a certain level, known as alarm limit, the switch can automatically take some defined action. What?

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Proprietary Enhancements to LAN Switches


LAN Switched Networks

Store and Forward versus Cut Through

Store and Forward


Traditional bridge/switch uses this approach

Bridge/switch receives and buffers the entire packet before forwarding it This operation allows the bridge/switch to identify error packets and discard them

This method also allows disparate technologies to be interconnected

By buffering the entire frame, it can be converted to other MAC layer media such as Token Ring, FDDI, and fast Ethernet

How does it work?

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Proprietary Enhancements to LAN Switches: Store and Forward Logic


LAN Switched Networks

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Proprietary Enhancements to LAN Switches


LAN Switched Networks

Cut Through
This approach is meant to reduce the latency introduced into the communication by store-and-forward

It operates by eliminating the complete buffering of packets as they are switched

It only stores the header of the frame in order to determine its destination

This results in lower latency for a single packet however, it also eliminates the error isolation capabilities

The advantage of lower latency gained by cut-through switches is not significant enough to outweight the harm caused by propagation of bad packets
How
CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

does it work?

Proprietary Enhancements to LAN Switches: Cut through


LAN Switched Networks

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Layer Three Switches


LAN Switched Networks

Definition
Generally defined as devices that forward data packets with knowledge of layer three and above protocols.

The term layer three switch has been applied to everything from LAN switches with some filtering capabilities to traditional routers.

Pure Routers The process of moving a packet from one port on a router to another is much more complex than the same process in LAN switch

This is owing to the forwarding operations of routers are done in terms of layer three protocols such as IP, IPX, Appletalk, etc.

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Layer Three Switches: Pure Routers


LAN Switched Networks

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Layer Three Switches


LAN Switched Networks

What happens to packets received by a router?

Embedded Routers This is a layer three switch (i.e. LAN switches) with embedded router functions

This refers to a LAN switch with a router in the same box

This type of device usually supports a very simple set of routing services in its routing logic
Most vendors limit this type of switch to just routing IP, IPX, and maybe a few other protocols

By limiting the protocols, the vendor is able to optimize the routing

logic in hardware to gain significant performance improvements

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Layer Three Switches: Embedded Routers


LAN Switched Networks

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Layer Three Switches


LAN Switched Networks

Hybrid Layer Three Switches


Devices that are inherently layer two switches but utilize some layer three knowledge to make forwarding decisions

The key component in this kind of switch is that all communication is done at layer two, based on MAC layer address

The device does not manipulate the packet, other than necessary media type conversions

Its layer three services are based on its ability to understand certain MAC layer broadcasts as specific layer three functions

It is then able to utilize the information contained in the layer three portion of the packet to make some decisions as to where the packet should be sent

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Layer Three Switches: Hybrid Switch Operation


LAN Switched Networks

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Quick Review Question


LAN Switched Networks

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Follow Up Assignment
LAN Switched Networks

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Summary of Main Teaching Points


LAN Switched Networks

Basic Model of the LAN Switch Layer three switch

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Question and Answer Session


LAN Switched Networks

Q&A
CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks

Next Session
LAN Switched Networks

Topic and Structure of next session Protocols


Protocol Characteristics Protocol Functions

CT032-LAN Switching and WAN Networks