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Is an undesirable change in physical, chemical or biological characteristics of the natural environment, brought about by human activities

Air pollution Water pollution Type Thermal pollution Noise pollution

Air Pollution
Air pollution is caused by the presence of harmful pollutants in the air which are harmful to life & the environment

Burning of rubbish, fossil fuels & solid wastes
Dust & soot Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Sulphur dioxide Nitrogen dioxide

Factories & Industries

Motor vehicles & car exhaust fumes

Dust & soot

Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Sulphur dioxide Nitrogen dioxide Lead





Acid rain

Effects of air pollution on human health
Cause respiratory diseases such as bronchitis, lung cancer & asthma Irritates the eyes, cause skin diseases & conjunctivitis

Effects of air pollution on buildings
Acid rain corrodes metal structures & erodes limestone used for making buildings Soot & dust blackens buildings

Effects of air pollution on climate
Smoke, soot & dust combine with water vapour to form haze The increase in CO2 in the atmosphere causes a rise in the Earths temperature (greenhouse effect)

Effects of air pollution on agriculture
Reduces agricultural productivity by reducing the rate of photosynthesis & stomata blockage Acid rain destroys plants

AIM:To compare solid pollutants in the air of different environment. PROBLEM STATEMENT:Which air sample has the highest amount of solid pollutants? HYPOTHESIS:The air from the most polluted environment has the highest amount of solid pollutants. VARIABLES:Manipulated : Air from different environments. Responding : Amount of solid pollutants Fixed : Time or size of cellophane tape.

MATERIAL AND APPARATUS:Slides, a petri dish, light microscope and cellophane tape
PROCEDURE:1. Five glass slides are cleaned, dried and labelled as P,Q,R,S and T. 2. A piece of cellophane tape is stuck on each slide. 3. Slide P is kept in a covered petri dish. 4. The other slides are put in the following places:Q= In a classroom R= In the canteen S= In an air-conditioned room T= Tied to the school gate. 5. All the slides are left aside and collected after three days. They are observed under a microscope.


DISCUSSION:1. Solid pollutants are found everywhere, even in the airconditioned room. 2. Dirt is found on slide P which was covered. The dirt may have fallen on the cellophane tape as the slide was taken out from the petri dish. 3. The place with the most pollutants in the area around the school gate. Exhaust flame from vehicles going in and out of the school compound contains smoke, soot and dust particles. CONCLUSION:The area in an air-conditioned room is the least polluted. The area around the school gate is the most polluted as it shows the most pollutants. The hypothesis is accepted.

Water Pollution
The main reason of water pollution occurs due to human activities Waste material from industrial & domestic sources that dissolved in water causes the quality of the water decreases The run-offs of fertiliser into lakes and rivers affect the freshwater ecosystem through eutrophication (occurs when inorganic nutrients and organic material enter a river or lake) The discharge of untreated sewage into a river has an immediate effect to biotic & abiotic component

Water Pollution
The enrichment of lakes and rivers with nutrient encourages photosynthesising organisms in water, particularly algae, to grow rapidly, resulting in an algal bloom Density of algae may be so high but light intensity in water is greatly reduced. The death of plants & algae will be decomposes by the bacteria lead to severe depletion of oxygen Rapid growth of microorganism in water leads to increase in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) BOD = amount of dissolved oxygen taken up by microorganisms that decompose organic waste matter in water

Water Pollution
The dissolved oxygen concentration can be used as an indicator of water pollution level High BOD value indicates the presence of a large number of microorganisms = high level of pollution Illegal dumping of waste matter & effluent from heavy industries is the main source of heavy metal pollution Many of the heavy metals are highly toxic, last for a long time & can accumulate in living organisms via food chain Radioactive waste can cause cancer & leukaemia

Aim: To investigate the level of water pollution in various water samples from some rivers Problem statement: What is the level of water pollution in some rivers?
Hypothesis: The water sample from the housing area is the most polluted Variables: Manipulated: Water samples from different rivers. Responding: Time taken for methylene blue solution to decolourise Fixed: Volume of water sample. Materials and apparatus: 0.1% methylene blue solution, water sample(200 ml each), reagent bottles, syringes.


Procedure: 1. Four samples of water are collected from four different sources. Four reagent bottles are labelled as P, Q, R, and S. 2. Each reagent bottle is filled with one water sample.
Water sample Distilled water From the hill Industrial area Housing area Time taken for methylene blue solution to decolourise (hours) (blue colour remains) 8 4 3


3. 1 ml of 0.1% methylene blue solution is added to each of the water samples using a syringe 4. Each reagent bottle is closed immediately. 5. All the bottles are placed in a dark area. 6. The change in the colour is checked every one hour. 7. The time taken for the methylene blue solution to decolourise is recorded for all the water samples. 8. The results are recorded in a table.


Water sample

Distilled water From the hill Industrial area Housing area

Time taken for methylene blue solution to decolourise (hours) (blue colour remains) 8 4 3

Discussion: 1. Methylene blue solution is used to test for the presence of oxygen in the water. It is blue when oxygen is present and colourless when oxygen is absent. 2. The time taken for methylene blue solution to decolourise is shorter if the oxygen content is lower.

Discussion: 1. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) value is the highest when the time taken for the methylene blue solution to decolourise is the shortest. This shows that the water sample is the most polluted as there are more microorganisms using the oxygen in the water for their metabolism. 2. The water sample from the river near the housing area is most polluted. The sources of pollution in the river are domestic wastes which encourage the growth of microorganisms, nitrates and phosphates from agriculture farms and untreated sewage. Conclusion: The methylene blue solution took the shortest time to decolourise in the water sample from the river near the housing area. The water from this river is the most polluted. Hypothesis is accepted.

Thermal Pollution
Thermal pollution is the release of excessive heat into the environment

Glass buildings

Discharge of hot water from factories, nuclear reactors & electric power stations

Electronic factories, electric power stations & nuclear reactors use water as a cooling agent

6 8

Aquatic animals die


Water becomes hot

Temperature increases >5C above normal temperature

Decrease concentration of water Increase BOD value

5 3

Hot water is channelled to rivers & seas

Water temperature increases

Increase process of decomposition

Glass buildings reflect the suns rays from one building to another Heat is trapped between the glass building The temperature of the surrounding area increases

Noise Pollution
Noise pollution is the occurrence of excessive noise in the environment that disturbs the tranquillity of life The loudness of sound is measured using the decibel (dB) unit Humans can only receive sounds that are less than 80 dB

Aircrafts Trains Traffic


Machines & equipment in factories

Construction sites

Ear injury Headaches

Hearing problems

High blood pressure

Psychological problems

Emotional & mental disturbances