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THIS MAY INVOLVE:-

* ADMINISTERING FIRST AID TO THE TRAPPED


AND INJURED PEOPLE. * DEMOLISH/ REPAIR/ SUPPORT OVERHANGING STRUCTURES TO PREVENT AGGRAVATION.

NATURE OF DESTRUCTION. SEARCH AND RESCUE AS SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS. PREPAREDNESS FOR SEARCH AND RESCUE. SEARCH AND RESCUE AS PROCESSES. PHILOSOPHY OF SEARCH AND RESCUE.

CONSIDERATIONS IN THE TOWNSHIP.


CONSIDERATIONS OF EACH SITE. ORGANIZING SEARCH AND RESCUE.

1. 2.

IT IS SUDDEN AND INTENSE. THE DEGREE DEPENDS UPON STRENGTH (INTENSITY) OF THE DISASTER, ITS PROXIMITY, GEOLOGY SUBSURFACE AND SURFACE AND THE DEVELOPMENT.

3.

CRACKS DEVELOP IN THE GROUND, INFRASTRUCTURE SUFFERS DAMAGE - COLUMNS AND BEAMS COLLAPSE - WALLS BREAK DOWN.
LANDSLIDES MAY OCCUR, SECONDARY DISASTERS LIKE FIRE MAY CAUSE FURTHER DAMAGE. SOMETIMES, WATER CHANNELS DRY UP, NEW WATER CHANNELS EMERGE OR WATER CHANNELS CHANGE THEIR COURSES. BUILDINGS HAVE SUNK FOUNDATIONS, THUS BRINGING THE WHOLE STRUCTURE DOWN. COLLAPSED BUILDINGS MAY FALL ON THE ROAD AND ON THE NEIGHBOURING BUILDING. THIS CAUSES SECONDARY EFFECTS AND BLOCKAGES OF ACCESS ROUTES. DAM BURSTS OR OVERFLOODING MAY OCCUR.

4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

DONE BY THE VICTIMS THEMSELVES, IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE INCIDENT.

DONE BY THE VOLUNTEERS PRESENT AT THE SITE. THIS IS NOT STRUCTURED AND DONE WITHOUT EQUIPMENT. DONE ON THE BASIS OF COMPASSION, URGE AND COURAGE.

DONE BY ORGANIZATIONS STRUCTURED FOR THE PURPOSE. ADVANCE USE OF EQUIPMENT IS DONE AND WITH DELIBERATE PLANNING AND EFFORTS.

THERE IS A REQUIREMENT OF AN ORGANIZATION,


CREATED FOR THE PURPOSE. THE ORGANIZATION MUST HAVE ADEQUATE

RESOURCES AND WHEREWITHAL.


THE TEAMS ARE LAUNCHED AFTER PROPER RECONNAISANCE AND PLANNING.

SEARCH AND RESCUE CHANNELS

Rescue duty: Evacuation duty: First Aid:

8 4 2 Ideally, 2 teams should operate in tandem with common control and relief team.

Control and admin and relief: 2 total: 16

SEARCH AND RESCUE TEAM-1

EVACUATION TEAM-1 EVACUATION TEAM-2

SEARCH AND RESCUE TEAM-2

FIRST AID CENTRE

INCIDENT COMMAND AND CONTROL CENTRE

FURTHER EVACUATION

1. 2. 3.

CONDUCT A QUICK VISUAL SURVEY OF THE AREA. DECIDE ON PRIORITIES FOR SEARCH IN EVERY SECTION OF THE AREA. CONDUCT A DETAILED VISUAL SEARCH. LOOK FOR SIGNS. BE ALERT TO EVEN FEABLE SOUNDS/ CALLS.

4. 5. 6. 7.

INTIMATE TO RESCUE TEAM (IF SEPARATE). CONDUCT SEARCH AT MOST OBVIOUS PLACES. CONDUCT SEARCH AT DIFFICULT PLACES. MORE NUMBER OF TEAMS COULD BE LAUNCHED.

8.
9.

SEARCH AND RESCUE SHOULD BE DONE CONCURRENTLY.


USE SUITABLE EQUIPMENT.

1. LATERAL SEARCH. 2. MATRIX SEARCH.

3. OUTSIDE TO INSIDE.
4. INSIDE TO OUTSIDE. 5. SIMULTANEOUS AT MULTIPLE LAYERS.
DEPENDS ON: TYPE OF DESTRUCTION OCCURRED OR LIKELY, GEOGRAPHY. CAUSE OF DESTRUCTION.

AMOUNT AND NATURE OF DEBRIS.


WHETHER WATER LEVELS HIGH OR LOW. MEANS AVAILABLE. APPROACHES AVAILABLE.

1. VISUAL SEARCH MANUAL AND BY ELECTRONICS MEANS. 2. METAL DETECTION/ HEAT/ INFRA RED/ ELECTROMAGNETIC DETECTION. 3. ANIMAL AIDED. 4. AERIAL SEARCH.

5. PRODDING AND THROUGH CLEARANCE OF DEBRIS.


1. 2. 3. 4. RABBIT HUNT. CONCENTRIC. OVERLAP METHOD. NETWORK METHOD.

RESCUE : POINTS TO PONDER


1. 2. DISTRIBUTION OF AREAS SHOULD BE LOGICAL. CAPABILITY OF A SINGLE TEAM IN TERMS OF EFFECTIVE RESCUE IN AN AREA DEPENDS UPON THE DISASTER TYPE, DAMAGE INTENSITY, GEOGRAPHY OF THE AREA AND THE EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE. THUS, MATHEMATICAL DISTRIBUTION SHOULD BE AVOIDED.

3.
4. 5.

SPAN OF CONTROL SHOULD BE ADEQUATELY EXERCISED WHILE DEMARKATING AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY.


SPECIALIZED EQUIPMENT SHOULD BE OPTIMALLY USED AND SHARED. RESCUE HAS TO BE A ROUND THE CLOCK OPERATION.

6.

THERE SHOULD BE SUFFICIENT RELIEF AVAILABLE WITHIN RESCUE TEAMS. CENTRALLY HELD RESERVES IN EQUIPMENT AND MANPOWER SHOULD BE LESSER AND MORE RESERVES SHOULD BE HELD AT RESCUE TEAM LEVEL.
FREEDOM OF ACTION SHOULD BE GIVEN TO THE TEAM IN CHARGE OF EVERY RESCUE TEAM. HOWEVER, DYNAMIC COORDINATION NEEDS TO BE ESTABLISHED. UNWANTED PEOPLE SHOULD BE HELD BACK OUTSIDE THE DANGER ZONE. CORDON DUTIES SHOULD BE GIVEN TO CIVIL SECURITY FORCES.

7.

8. 9.

10. ADMINISTRATIVE MACHINERY SHOULD BE OUTSIDE THE DANGER ZONES.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED FOR RESCUE Rescue equipment depends upon the type of disaster and the area of rescue.
GEOLOGICAL DISASTERS EARTH MOVING AND INFRASTRUCTURE

DAMAGE RELATED TASKS ARE MORE INTENSE. LIFTERS, CUTTERS, ROPES, LADDERS, DIGGING IMPLEMENTS, MECHANICAL/ ENGINEERING MACHINERY ETC. WATER RELATED DISASTERS WATER RELATED RESCUE EQUIPMENT BOATS, ROPES, LIFE JACKETS, POLES ETC. ENVIRONMENT RELATED GENERAL RESCUE EQUIPMENT AND PROTECTIVE PERSONNEL EQUIPMENT. VIOLENCE RELATED FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT, DIGGING TOOLS, MECHANICAL MACHINERY, EXPLOSIVES DISPOSAL RELATED, PROTECTIVE CLOTHING.

NOTE: INFACT, MULTIPLE DISASTER SCENARIOS ARE ABOUND AND A RESCUE UNIT REQUIRES TO BE ADEQUATELY EQUIPPED.

RECONNAISANCE. PLANNING. LAUNCH OF TEAMS. ** ** ** SURFACE RESCUE. MECHANICAL MEANS RESCUE OF SUB-SURFACE. ADVANCE RESCUE OF DEEPLY BURRIED/ TRAPPED VICTIMS (including aerial rescue/ mountain rescue/ avalanche rescue etc).

RESCUE PRIORITIES
1. GEOLOGICAL DISASTERS: * SURFACE CASUALTIES * PARTLY BURRIED CASUALTIES * MOST LIKLEY PLACES OF SURVIVAL * SELECTED DEBRIS CLEARANCE * GENERAL DEBRIS CLEARANCE. 2. WATER RELATED DISASTERS: * ALONG THE OUTERMOST EDGES * NEXT LIKLELY ENDANGERED AREAS * TOWARDS INNERMOST CHANNELS * AT AREAS ISOLATED AND MOST LIKELY MAROONED VICTIMS. 3. HAZMAT: * SIMULTANEOUS AT OUTER PERIPHERY AND INNERMOST AREAS IF THE RESCUE TEAM IS WELL EQUIPPED AND TRAINED * NEXT LIKELY AFFECTED AREAS.

THE PROCESS OF MOVING PEOPLE, LIVESTOCK AND MATERIAL FROM AN UNSAFE PLACE TO A SAFE PLACE

1.

DURING FLOOD WARNING:


* MOVE PEOPLE AWAY FROM WATERLINE, TOWARDS HIGHER GROUND, AT LEAST 2 KM AWAY, PERPENDICULAR OR TOWARDS UPWARD FLANK..

* THE PLACE SHOULD BE CLOSER TO A FREE ROAD AXIS.


* THE PLACE SHOULD BE SECURED, PROTECTED AND SPACIOUS ENOUGH TO ACCOMMODATE A LARGE NUMBER. * RECORD THE DETAILS OF PEOPLE EVACUATED AND MAKE SURE THAT THEY STAY AT THE PLACE. * ROUTES OF EVACUATION SHOULD BE PRE-DECIDED OR

IF NOT POSSIBLE, PLANNED IMMEDIATELY.


* IT IS IMPORTANT TO USE ROAD TRANSPORT AND ENSURE THAT THE TRANSPORT DOESNT CONGEST THE ROADS.

2. DURING TSUNAMI WARNING:

* MOVE THE PEOPLE AT LEAST TWO KM FROM THE WATERLINE.


* PLACE OF EVACUATION SHOULD HAVE THE SAME CHARACTERISTICS AS THAT DURING THE FLOODS. 3. DURING GAS LEAKAGE: * MOVE THE PEOPLE PERPENDICULAR TO THE DIRECTION OF THE WIND AND TO THE LOWE FLANK IF POSSIBLE.

Direction of move
HERE THE EVACUEES HAVE TO BE HELD FOR ONLY A COUPLE OF HOURS.

4. DURING WARNING OF ENEMY AIR ATTACK:

* ASK PEOPLE TO GET OUT OF THE HOUSES AND IN BROKEN


GROUNDS. * THOSE WHO ARE TRAVELLING IN BUSES AND CARS, SHOULD STOP THE VEHICLES AND GET DOWN. TAKE SHELTER NEAR A COMPOUND WALL. LAY DOWN FLAT, UPSIDE DOWN WITH HEAD PROTECTED. 5. DURING WARNINGS OF A NUCLEAR STRIKE:

* RUN TOWARDS THE OPEN SPACES ON THE OUTSKIRTS OF A


TOWN. THE WARNING MAY BE OF A FEW MINUTES ONLY. * SHUT INSIDE A VEHICLE OR AN UNDERGROUND PARKING IF IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO GO ON THE OUTSKIRTS. (THE ABOVE METHODS ONLY INDICATE LESSER PROBABILITY OF DAMAGE. THE GROUND ZERO DECIDES THE DAMAGE)

6. DURING CYCLONE WARNINGS.

* MOVE PEOPLE AWAY FROM THE COAST, ATLEAST 50 KM


AND IN A DIRECTION PERPENDICULAR TO THE DIRECTION OF THE CYCLONES PATH. FOR THIS ATLEAST A WARNING OF 24 HOURS IS REQUIRED. * IF LESSER WARNING IS AVAILABLE, MOVE PEOPLE TO STRONGER BUILDINGS WHICH ARE NOT VERY HIGH.

* MOVE PEOPLE TO REVERSE SLOPES OF HILLS FROM TOPS


AND FORWARD SLOPES, KEEPING THE DIRECTION OF THE CYCLONE IN VIEW.

1.

FLOODS: * EVACUATE PEOPLE WHO ARE NOT YET AFFECTED AT THE EARLIEST TO SAFER PLACES. * EVACUATE PEOPLE FROM WATERLINE FIRST. * EVACUATE PEOPLE FROM THE BUILDINGS. * EVACUATE PEOPLE FROM TEA-TOPS. * EVACUATE PEOPLE FROM HIGH-RISE HILLS AS THE LAST PRIORITY.

2.

DURING CYCLONES. * MAKE PEOPLE STAY INSIDE STRONGER BUILDINGS, AWAY FROM WATERLINE. * MOVE PEOPLE PERPENDICULAR TO THE DIRECTION OF THE WIND.

50 250 KG OF EXPLOSIVE 250 - 500 KG EXPLOSIVE

50 MTRS. 100 MTRS.

500 KG AND ABOVE

300 MTRS.

ACTION WHEN YOU HEAR AN EXPLOSION CLOSE TO YOU: DASH TO THE GROUND, AWAY FROM THE DIRECTION OF THE SOUND.

LIE DOWN WITH FACE DOWN AND CRAWL TO A


PROTECTED PLACE.

ONE MAN EVACUATION:


FIREMAN LIFT. PICK-A-BACK. WITH ROPE AND HANKY. CHEST HOLD. TWO MEN METHOD: SITTING CASUALTY. STRETCHER METHOD. FOUR MEN ECVACUATION: STRETCHERS CONVENTIONAL AND MAKE-SHIFT. WITH HELP OF ROPES FROM DEPTH OR HEIGHTS. WITH THE HELP OF MECHANICAL IMPLEMENTS: SAFETY NET. NEOPRIN MEMBRANE. SHOOT.

1. MANUAL CARRIAGE. 2. ROPE LADDER. 3. BY CHAIR KNOT. 4. PULLEY AND ROPE. 5. LADDERS AND STRETCHERS.

6. BAMBOO.
7. FLOATING DEVICES. 8. BOATS. 9. AERIAL EVACUATION.

WHEN MASS EVACUATION IS TO BE DONE


1. 2. 3. INSTRUCT THE COMMUNITY ABOUT THE DANGER. PLACE TO WHICH EVACUATION WILL BE DONE. MODE OF EVACUATION.

4.
5. 6.

ROUTES.
TIME BY WHICH EVACUATION WILL BE COMPLETED. SAFE LINE BEYOND WHICH TO EVACUATE.

7.
8. 9.

ROUTES AND PLACES UNSAFE.


WHAT ITEMS TO CARRY DURING EVACUATION. ADMINISTRATIVE SET UP.

10. ALL INSTRUCTIONS MUST INCLUDE THESE DETAILS AND SPREAD IN A MANNER THAT WILL NOT CAUSE PANIC.

RELIEF
RELIEF INCLUDES ALL THOSE ACTIVITIES THAT INVOLVE ATTEMPTS TO BRING NORMALCY TO THE LIVES OF THE VICTIMS SUCH THAT MINIMUM SUSTAINANCE IS ASSURED AND THE SAME IS BUILT UP TO A LEVEL FROM WHERE THE VICTIM CAN COMMENCE NORMAL LIFE WITHOUT EXTERNAL SUPPORT.

RELIEF HAS TWO STAGES:


1. 2. IMMEDIATE RELIEF. DELIBERATE RELIEF.

IMMEDIQTE RELIEF:
THIS INVOLVES OFFERING IMMEDIATE MEDICAL AID TO RESTORE THE CONDITION. OFFERING FOOD, WATER AND CLOTHES TO BRING NORMALCY TO THE VICTIMS. TO OFFER A TEMPORARY SHELTER TILL FURTHER ARRANGEMENTS ARE MADE. OFFER COUNSELLING IF REQUIRED TO MAKE THE MINDS OF THE VICTIMS STABLE. OFFER IMMEDIATE ADHOC FINANCIAL COMPENSATION. THIS IS OFFERED LARGELY BY THE COMMUNITY AND THE GOVERNMENT OFFERS FINANCIAL AID.

DELIBERATE RELIEF:
IN THIS, THE VICTIMS ARE RECORDED AND ACCOUNTED FOR.
THEY ARE SHIFTED TO A RELIEF CAMP OR TEMPORARY SHELTERS WHERE THEIR ADMINISTRATION IS DONE BY THE GOVERNMENT AGENCIES.

THE VICTIMS COULD BE KEPT BY FAMILY UNITS OR IN GROUPS.


THE GOVERNMENT GIVES THESE PEOPLE THOSE ESSENTIAL ITEMS AND SUPPORT THAT WILL ALLOW THE VICTIMS TO CONTINUE TO WORK/ EDUCATE OR PURSUE THEIR EARLIER VENTURES AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. THE GOVERNMENT ENSURES FOOD, WATER SUPPLY, ESSENTIAL ITEMS OF SUSTAINANCE, ELECTRICITY IN THE CAMPS, COMMUNITY OR INDIVIDUAL COOKING ARRANGEMENTS, RATIONS, DISTRIBUTION OF EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL, HOUSEHOLD MATERIAL, MONEY FOR REPAIR AND RECONSTRUCTION OF HOUSES, DEATH AND INJURY COMPENSATION ETC. THE COMMUNITY JOINS THE GOVERNMENT IN OFFERING SUCH ASSISTANCE.