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Microevolution

2012-2013

Selective Breeding & Evolution


Evolution is genetic change in a line of descent through successive generations Selective breeding practices yield evidence that heritable changes do occur

Chickens

Domestication of Dogs
Began about 50,000 years ago 14,000 years ago - artificial selection
Dogs with desired forms of traits were bred

Modern breeds are the result

Dog Breeds

Silver Fox Video


Segment from a BBC Documentary http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ot2www 2CF3Y Cornell Website: Study of the Molecular Basis of Tame and Aggressive Behavior in the Silver Fox Model http://cbsu.tc.cornell.edu/ccgr/behaviour/In dex.htm

Silver Fox Fur Trade

The Case of the Silver Fox

http://www.hum.utah.edu/~bbenham/2510%20Spring%2009/Behavior%20Genetics /Farm-Fox%20Experiment.pdf (Please read this article). To investigate the domestication process as an evolutionary phenomenon, academician D.K. Belyaev began a wide-scale experiment on domestication of different animals. A population of silver-black foxes that may be considered genetically adapted to humans and man-made factors on all parameters was bread as a result of multi-year selection. It is extremely important that such behavior develops on the genetic base and is preserved stable both in ontogenesis and in further generations. The population is unique as it has no analogues worldwide. http://tinyurl.com/4mojzp4

Results of Artificial Selection


Extremes in size
Great Dane and Chihuahua

Extremes in form
Short-legged dachshunds
English bulldog Short snout and compressed face

Extreme traits lead to health problems

Evolutionary Theories
Widely used to interpret the past and present, and even to predict the future
Reveal connections between the geological record, fossil record, and organism diversity

Early Scientific Theories


Hippocrates - All aspects of nature can be traced to their underlying causes Aristotle - Each organism is distinct from all the rest and nature is a continuum or organization

Great Chain of Being

Confounding Evidence
( to the Great Chain of Being Concept)

Biogeography Comparative anatomy

Geologic discoveries

Biogeography
Size of the known world expanded enormously in the 15th century
Discovery of new organisms in previously unknown places could not be explained by accepted beliefs
How did species get from center of creation to all these places?

What, How, and Where?

Biogeography
Biogeography is the study of the geographical patterns of plant and animal species.

BioRealms

Comparative Morphology
Study of similarities and differences in body plans of major groups Puzzling patterns:
Animals as different as whales and bats have similar bones in forelimbs
Some parts seem to have no function

(vestigial)

Vertebrate Forelimbs

Bat

Human

Whale

Wolf Paw Anatomy

Vestigial Anatomy

Geological Discoveries
Similar rock layers throughout world Certain layers contain fossils Deeper layers contain simpler fossils

than shallow layers


Some fossils seem to be related to known species

Dinosaur Fossils Etc

Acrocanthosaurus Skull Size 56" long. Weight 150 lb's Cost $9,500 with stand.

Grand Canyon

19th Century - New Theories


Scientists attempt to reconcile evidence of change with traditional belief in a single creation event Two examples
Georges Cuvier - multiple catastrophes Jean Lamarck - inheritance of acquired characteristics

The Theory of Uniformity


Lyells Principles of Geology Subtle, repetitive processes of change had shaped Earth Challenged the view that Earth was only 6,000 years old

Erosion

Wind and water produce hoodoos.

In German

Darwins Voyage
At age 22, Charles Darwin began a fiveyear, round-the-world voyage aboard the Beagle In his role as ships naturalist, he collected and examined the species that inhabited the regions the ship visited

Voyage of the Beagle

EQUATOR

Galapagos Islands

Galapagos Islands
Volcanic islands far off coast of Ecuador All inhabitants are descended from species that arrived on islands from elsewhere

Darwin

Wolf

Pinta

Marchena Santiago

Genovesa

Bartolom Rabida Pinzon Seymour Baltra Santa Cruz Santa Fe Tortuga San Cristobal Espaola Floreana

Fernandia

Isabela

Malthus - Struggle to Survive


Thomas Malthus, a clergyman and economist, wrote essay that Darwin read on his return to England Argued that as population size increases, resources dwindle, the struggle to live intensifies, and conflict increases

Malthusian Catastrophe Stopped Here

Galapagos Finches
Darwin observed finches with a variety of lifestyles and body forms On his return, he learned that there were 13 species He attempted to correlate variations in their traits with environmental challenges

Beaks

Galapagos Finches

Galapagos Tortoises

Darwins Theory
A population can change over time when
individuals differ in one or more heritable traits that are responsible for differences in the ability to survive and reproduce.

Darwin's Explanatory Model of Evolution Through Natural Selection*


Note: An understanding of evolution by natural selection is accessible to all.
*Source: BSCS Green Version of Biology

Facts 1, 2, and 3
1. Potential exponential increase in populations (superfecundity) (Source: Paley, Malthus, and others) 2. Observed steady-state of stability of populations (Source: universal observations) 3. Limitations of resources (Source: observation reinforced by Malthus)

Superfucundity
Far more offspring are produced than survive to adulthood. Termites..

Inference 1
Struggle for existence among individuals (Author of inference: Malthus)

Facts 4 and 5
Fact 4 Uniqueness of the individual (Source: animal breeders, taxonomists) Fact 5 Heritability of much of the individual variation (Source: animal breeders)

Genetic Basis for the Inheritance of Phenotypes


Genetics provides a firm foundation.

Inference 2
Differential survival and reproduction i.e. natural selection (Author of inference: Darwin)

Inference 3
Through many generations: evolution. (Author of inference: Darwin)
The theory of evolution by natural selection is composed of facts and inferences. Biologists have universally found this theory to be the best account for the fossil record, biodiversity, comparative anatomy, biogeography, drug resistance in bacteria, etc. Like all scientific theories it represents the best that science has to offer, but still it must be tested with any new scientific information and may be modified accordingly. So far the theory of evolution by natural selection is the best scientific model for the biotic world.

Sister Species
Florida Scrub Jay Western Scrub Jay

Aphelocoma insularis

Aphelocoma californica

Distributions

Alfred Wallace (STOPPED HERE)


Naturalist who arrived at the same conclusions Darwin did Wrote to Darwin describing his views Prompted Darwin to finally present his

ideas in a formal paper

Alfred Russel Wallace


The Wallace Effect is the hypothesis that natural selection can contribute to the reproductive isolation of incipient species by encouraging varieties to develop barriers to hybridization. He is best known for independently proposing
a theory of natural selection.

Populations Evolve
Biological evolution does not change individuals It changes a population Traits in a population vary among individuals Evolution is change in frequency of traits

Variation in Color Pattern

The Gene Pool


All of the genes in the population Genetic resource that is shared (in theory) by all members of population

Variation in Phenotype
Each kind of gene in gene pool may have two or more alleles Individuals inherit different allele combinations This leads to variation in phenotype Offspring inherit genes, not phenotypes

What Determines Alleles in New Individual?


Mutation Crossing over at meiosis I Independent assortment Fertilization
Change in chromosome

number or structure

Crossing Over

Genetic Equilibrium
Allele frequencies at a locus are not changing Population is not evolving

Five Conditions
No mutation Random mating Gene doesnt affect survival or reproduction Large population No immigration/emigration

Microevolutionary Processes
Drive a population away from genetic equilibrium Small-scale changes in allele frequencies brought about by:
Natural selection Gene flow Genetic drift

Sexual Selection

Gene Mutations
Infrequent but inevitable Each gene has own mutation rate Lethal mutations Neutral mutations Advantageous mutations

Hardy-Weinberg Rule
At genetic equilibrium, proportions of genotypes at a locus with two alleles are given by the equation:
p2 AA + 2pq Aa + q2 aa = 1

Frequency of allele A = p Frequency of allele a = q p+q=1

Punnett Square

p A p A q a AA(p2) Aa(pq)

q a Aa(pq) aa(q2)

Frequencies in Gametes

F1 genotypes: Gametes:

0.49 AA A A

0.42 Aa A a

0.09 aa a a

0.49 + 0.21 0.7A

0.21 + 0.09 0.3a

Hardy-Weinberg Application (STOPPED Here)


In a population of 1000 individuals, 40 have attached earlobes. Recall that the attached earlobe phenotype is a recessive condition. Required: (1) Calculate p and q. (2) How many are heterozygous (Aa)?

Solution
We are given that (40/1000) is the frequency of the homozygous condition, aa.

Recall that p2(AA) + 2pq(Aa) + q2(aa) =1


q2 = frequency of aa individuals = .04. Therefore, (q2)1/2 = q = .20

p = 1-q = (1 - .2) = .80


Heterozygous frequency = 2pq = 2(.8)(.2) = .32 1000 x .32 = 320 are Aa

How many would be genotypically AA?

Some Practice Problems


http://nhscience.lonestar.edu/biol/hwe/q1d. html Do the first two problems.

STARTING POPULATION
490 AA butterflies Dark-blue wings

No Change through Generations

420 Aa butterflies Medium-blue wings 90 aa butterflies White wings

THE NEXT GENERATION


490 AA butterflies

420 Aa butterflies

90 aa butterflies

NO CHANGE THE NEXT GENERATION


490 AA butterflies

420 Aa butterflies

90 aa butterflies

NO CHANGE

Natural Selection
A difference in the survival and reproductive success of different phenotypes
Acts directly on phenotypes and indirectly on genotypes

Reproductive Capacity & Competition


All populations have the capacity to increase in numbers No population can increase indefinitely Eventually the individuals of a population will end up competing for resources

Variation in Populations
All individuals have the same genes that specify the same assortment of traits Most genes occur in different forms (alleles) that produce different phenotypes Some phenotypes compete better than others

Change over Time


Over time, the alleles that produce the most successful phenotypes will increase in the population Less successful alleles will become less common Change leads to increased fitness
Increased adaptation to environment

Results of Natural Selection


Three possible outcomes:
A shift in the range of values for a given trait in some direction Stabilization of an existing range of values

Disruption of an existing range of values

Number of individuals

in the population
Range of values for the trait at time 1

Directional Selection

Allele frequencies shift in one direction

Number of individuals in the population

Range of values for the trait at time 2

Number of individuals in the population

Range of values for the trait at time 3

Revisit the Cane Toad.


Cane toads in Australia develop longer legs: study LONDON (Reuters) - Cane toads in Australia have developed longer legs to enable them to invade more territory, scientists said on Wednesday.

Faster Toads
Toads with longer legs are faster and are leading the invasion into new territory. These longer legged toads are faster. What other advantage would speed impart to these toads?

Peppered Moths
Prior to industrial revolution, most common phenotype was light colored After industrial revolution, dark phenotype became more common

Pre-Industrial Population

Peppered Moth on Bark

Light Colored Form on Dark Bark

Result of Genes Interacting with Environment

Pesticide Resistance
Pesticides kill susceptible insects Resistant insects survive and reproduce

If resistance has heritable basis, it becomes more common with each generation

Pesticide Resistant Insects

Pesticide Resistance in Crops

Global Problem

Antibiotic Resistance
First came into use in the 1940s
Overuse has led to increase in resistant forms Most susceptible cells died out and were replaced by resistant forms

Resistance Transfer

Antibiotic Resistance

In the News

NDM-1 superbug enzyme's 'photofit' taken


The structure of the protein which stops some of medicine's most powerful antibiotics working has been determined by researchers.
Bacteria which make NDM-1 are of growing concern to health professionals. The protein has larger "jaws" which allow it to attack more antibiotics than other enzymes. The NDM-1 enzyme, in red, breaking down an antibiotic in blue.

By James Gallagher Health reporter, BBC News 6 September 2011 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-14788046

Intermediate forms are favored and extremes are eliminated

Number of individuals in the population


Range of values for the trait at time 1 Range of values for the trait at time 2 Range of values for the trait at time 3

Stabilizing Selection

Selection for Gall Size


Gall-making fly has two major predators Wasps prey on larvae in small galls

Birds eat larvae in large galls


Flies that cause intermediate-sized galls have the highest fitness

Number of individuals in the population


Range of values for the trait at time 3

Forms at both ends of the range of variation are favored Intermediate forms are selected against

Number of individuals Number of individuals in the population in the population

Disruptive Selection

Range of values for the trait at time 1

Range of values for the trait at time 2

African Finches
Selection favors birds with very large or very small bills Birds with intermediate-sized bill are less effective feeders
60 50 40 30 20 10 10 12.8 15.7 18.5

nestlings
drought survivors

Number of individuals

Widest part of lower bill (millimeters)

Sexual Selection
Selection favors certain secondary sexual characteristics
Through nonrandom mating, alleles for preferred traits increase Leads to increased sexual dimorphism

Elephant Seals - Harems

Balanced Polymorphism
Polymorphism - having many forms Occurs when two or more alleles are maintained at frequencies greater than 1 percent

Sickle-Cell Trait: Heterozygote Advantage


Malaria case

Allele HbS causes sicklecell anemia when heterozygous Heterozygotes are more resistant to malaria than homozygotes

Sickle-cell trait less than 1 in 1,600 1 in 400-1,600 1 in 180-400 1 in 100-180 1 in 64-100 more than 1 in 64

Gene Flow
Physical flow of alleles into a population Tends to keep the gene pools of populations similar Counters the differences that result from mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift

Genetic Drift
Random change in allele frequencies brought about by chance Effect is most pronounced in small populations Sampling error - Fewer times an event occurs, greater the variance in outcome

Computer Simulation
1.0 AA in five populations

0.5

allele A lost from four populations 0 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Generation (25 stoneflies at the start of each)

Computer Simulation
1.0

0.5 allele A neither lost nor fixed 0 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Generation (500 stoneflies at the start of each)

Bottleneck
A severe reduction in population size Causes pronounced drift Example
Elephant seal population hunted down to just 20 individuals Population rebounded to 30,000 Electrophoresis revealed there is now no allele variation at 24 genes

Bottleneck Effect

All Cheetahs are closely related as a result of a recent bottleneck.

Founder Effect
Effect of drift when a small number of individuals starts a new population By chance, allele frequencies of founders may not be same as those in original population Effect is pronounced on isolated islands

Catalina Island Fox

Inbreeding
Nonrandom mating between related individuals Leads to increased homozygosity Can lower fitness when deleterious recessive alleles are expressed Amish, cheetahs

Atavistic Structures
Atavistic structures in individual members of a species arise from a defect in the individual's genetic development. A gene may not turn on (or off) at the right time. Combined with inbreeding, unusual genetic patterns may immerge.

Imagine
A human population that:
Have tails Fully covered with hair (fur) Walk on all fours Genetic basis

Human Tails
J Neurosurg. 1985 Sep; 63(3): 461-2. Related Articles, Links

The human tail: a benign stigma. Case report.


Spiegelmann R, Schinder E, Mintz M, Blakstein A. Thirty-three cases of true human tails have been reported in the modern English literature. A new case is described and its radiological and pathological features are presented. A review of the literature and analysis of the pathological characteristics of this interesting lumbosacral stigma indicate that the true human tail is a benign condition not associated with any underlying cord malformation. Publication Types:
Case Reports

PMID: 3894599 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Child with a Tail


Indian Journal of Pediatrics 2002 September; 69(9) Islam MK. Dept. of Paediatric Surgery, Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College, Bangladesh. mkislam@gononet.com Abstract An interesting case of a child with a tail is reported. The child had a tail like structure in the back since birth, increasing with age. It was 20 cm. long, the longest tail so far described in the English literature. There was no functional complaint. The result was excellent after excision as the problem was only cosmetic.

Human Tail 1901 Photos

from Harrison, R.G. Occurrence of tails in man, with a description of a case reported by Dr. Watson.

FIVE brothers and sisters who can only walk naturally on all fours are being hailed as a unique insight into human evolution, after being found in a remote corner of rural Turkey. Genetic basis Siblings have a unique language Missing link? (Probably not)

Walking on all fours with the ancestors BBC (March 07, 2006 )

Hirsutism
CASE REPORT BARBER-SAY SYNDROME: FURTHER DELINEATION OF THE CLINICAL SPECTRUM Fanny M. Corts, Ledia A. Troncoso, Anglica R. Alliende and Bianca L. Curotto Unidad de Gentica y Enfermedades Metablicas, Instituto de Nutricin y Tecnologa de los Alimentos (INTA), Universidad de Chile, Macul 5540, Santiago, Chile. Send correspondence to F.M.C.

ABSTRACT We report on a 14-year-old girl who presented a multiple congenital anomaly pattern: ablepharon, hypertelorism, telecanthus, macrostomia, helix agenesis of both ears, redundant thick skin and severe hirsutism, the 5th reported case of Barber-Say syndrome. Our patient had almost the same phenotype as that of the patient cited by Martnez Santana et al. (Am. J. Med. Genet. 47: 20-23, 1993) including the same until then undescribed dermatoglyphic pattern.

BARBER-SAY SYNDROME

Lavinia Fontana [Italian Painter, 1552-1614]

Portrait of a Girl Covered in Hair