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Pilot Navigation & Flt Planning

1:60 Rule Track Error & Closing Angle mental DR Use of Radio Aids Flight plan PNR & CP

Pilot Navigation

The rule is based on the premise that if a right angle triangle has a base line 60 units long, the value in degrees of the smaller enclosed angle is the same as the number of units in the shorter side of the triangle. A comparison with the actual angle errors of less than for angles upto 9 7 only 1 error at 16 .By 20 the error is 1 ,increasing rapidly at larger angles.Hence the usage is limited to 20



Paralleling Trk( OFFSET)

Double Trk Error method

2 TE Correction

TE+ CA Method

TE + CA To Dest/WPT

Std C. A.

(It is applicable to low flying, high speed jet A/C only).

Mental DR- 1
TAS from RAS: Ht in Ft 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 50000 % added to RAS 7.5 15 26 37 50 64 80 100 130 150

Mental DR-2
TAS from Mach No: Assuming ISA conditions, this method is reasonably accurate upto 40000 Ft & speeds upto Mach 1: a. Multiply the indicated Mno ( to two decimal places ) by 600 or by 6 ignoring decimal. b. If the Mno is .60 or less add 1Kt for each 1000 Ft below 25000 Ft, or subtract 1kt per 1000 Ft above 25000 Ft. c. Mno> .60 add 2Kts/ subtract 2 Kts for each 1000Ft as in b.

Wind Factor Chart

Effective Wind

Radio Fixing

3P/L Fix

3P/L Running Fix

RMI - Enroute

RMI-Trk In / Trk Out

Tracking In On RMI

Tracking In On RMI

RMI-Tracking Out

RMI-Tracking Out

ADF indications


Principles of Flt Planning

a) Selection of route

b) Met planning

c) A/C performance

d) Cruise control

Route Planning

Computarised Flight Plan

( at altn)

Comp. Flt Planning

Air India is a licensed user of the PHOENIX flt planning system which is provided by EDS( Electronic Data system).The program is designed to produce a safe & cost sensitive flt plan, even to the extent of rejecting an erroneous non-flyable plan.

Main elements of PHOENIX are: Flight Leg Record(FLR)- Stored information includes preferred route or route selection, alternate, min/max FLT LVL, ICAO/FAA flt plan,cruise profiles,weather data etc.The same route (city pair ) may have upto two more options with different parameters. Aircraft Record( ACR)- Each of our aircraft is identified by its own registration. A default record defines the company operating policy & limitations on MTOW, LDW, ZFW, max. taxi-out wt,fuel tank capacity, residual fuel,options of different climb, cruise & descent profiles,Selcal, engine model etc

Comp. Flt Planning(contd..)

Navigation : The Nav database holds worldwide information regarding airways, radio aids, WPT coordinates, STARs & SIDs of major airports of length 5000 ft or more. This information is supplied by Jeppesen & it is automatically updated every 28 days as per AIRAC cycle date. Any Class I/ II Notams can be processed online. Aircraft Performance( ACP)- This database contains performance data for all aircraft types & engines as required by the airline .This data is supplied by the manufacturers & neds to be verified locally for nonstandard configuration. Weather- Database contains upper air information such as winds, temp, tropopause levels etc. The US National Meteorological Centre,Maryland & UK met Office at Bracknell supply the data. Air India uses the latter source( Maryland being the alternate source). Both the MET Offices deliver data twice a day.

Flt Plan : PNR & CP


Flt from A to D: cruise at M 0.75, FOB 23000kgs, reserve 4000kgs complete the flt plan 7 calculate: a) time & distance for PNR to A b) time & distance for CP between A & D. Steps:( Std temp at F330 = -51deg C).Complete temp column. Evolve TAS from M0.75. Complete the flt plan. Find Out + Home fuel for each leg. Find PNR

Flt Plan : PNR & CP

Finding CP

CP between B & C: 58 102 = d 365= t 56 d= 208 nm t =32 min