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Cell Cycle

The Cell Cycle Definition


a. The cell cycle is the regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo. b. This occurs as one parent cell divides to form two identical daughter cells.
Parent Cell Daughter Cells

2 identical daughter cells Parent cell (or Plainsman in this case)

Cell Cycle Stages

1.
2. 3.

There are 3 main stages in the cell cycle: Interphase Mitosis Cytokinesis

STAGE 1: INTERPHASE
a. Interphase is the first stage of the cell cycle. b. It is the period BEFORE cell division occurs. c. During interphase, the cell grows to its mature size, makes a copy of its DNA and prepares to divide into 2 cells.

STAGE 1: INTERPHASE (continued)


d. Interphase has three parts:
1. Growth: when the cell grows to its mature size. 2. DNA Replication: in the nucleus, the cell makes a copy of its DNA. a. There will be 2 identical sets of DNA at the end of DNA replication. 3. Preparation for division: when the cell produces structures that it will use to divide.

To sum interphase up, its when the cell is GROWING, COPYING its DNA, and PREPARING to DIVIDE.

STAGE 2: MITOSIS
a. Mitosis is the stage when the cells nucleus divides into two nuclei (= plural of nucleus). b. Each daughter cell receives 1 copy of DNA from the parent cell. c. Condensed chromatin forms a chromatid, and two identical chromatids are called chromosome, joined by a centromere.

Chromosome Structure

STAGE 2: MITOSIS (continued)


d. There are four phases of mitosis that can be abbreviated as PMAT:
1. Prophase: when 1) chromosomes form, 2) spindle fibers form, and 3) the nuclear membrane (= nuclear envelope) breaks down. 2. Metaphase: the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell and attach to a spindle fiber at the centromere. 3. Anaphase: centromeres split and the chromatids separate while the cell becomes stretched out. 4. Telophase: chromatids unravels back into chromatin and a new nuclear membrane forms.

STAGE 2: MITOSIS (continued)


Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase

1) chromosomes form 2) spindle fibers form 3) the nuclear membrane breaks down.

Chromosomes line up in the center of the cell and attach to a spindle fiber at the centromere.

Centromeres split and the chromatids separate while the cell becomes stretched out.

Chromsosomes unravels back into chromatin and a new nuclear membrane forms.

STAGE 3: CYTOKINESIS
a. Cytokinesis starts at the end of mitosis and is when the parent cell divides, passing out the organelles into the two new cells. b. In an animal cell, the cell membrane forms around the center of the two new cells and the cytoplasm is divided evenly. c. In a plant cell, the cell membrane forms before the cell wall. A cell plate is created between the two new cells which gradually becomes the cell wall. d. Once cytokinesis is complete, the new cells enter interphase again and the cell cycle repeats. NOW THERE ARE 2 NEW CELLS!!!

CYTOKINESIS IN A PLANT CELL

Length of the cell cycle


a. The length of the cell cycle varies for all types of cells.
1. Cell division DOES NOT occur in all of your brain cells what do you think that means?

b. Interphase is ALWAYS the longest stage of the cell cycleNO MATTER WHAT KIND OF CELL IT IS!!!!!!!!!!

DNA Replication This occurs in Interphase


a. DNA replication is important because it makes sure that each daughter cell will have all of the genetic information it needs. James WATSON and Francis CRICK were the two scientists that figured out the structure of DNA. The shape of DNA is called a double helix because it looks like a twisted ladder or spiral staircase. The two sides of the DNA ladder are made of deoxyribose (a type of sugar) and alternates with phosphates.
ITS PRETTY!

b.

c.

d.

DNA Structure
e. The rungs of the ladder are made of a pair of molecules, called nitrogen bases, and there are four types:
1. ADENINE: only pairs with thymine. 2. THYMINE: only pairs with adenine. 3. CYTOSINE: only pairs with guanine. 4. GUANINE: only pairs with cytosine. ALWAYS REMEMBER: A-T and C-G because its how they pair!

DNA Replication
f. During DNA replication, the two sides unwind and separate. g. In the nucleus, other freefloating nitrogen bases will attach to the separated strands of DNA. These will form an identical strand of DNA as the original separated strand.