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History

Lathe forerunner of all machine tools First application was potter's wheel
Rotated clay and enabled it to be formed into cylindrical shape

Very versatile (many attachments)


Used for turning, tapering, form turning, screw cutting, facing, drilling, boring, spinning, grinding and polishing operations
Cutting tool fed either parallel or right angles

Special Types of Lathes


Engine lathe
Not production lathe, found in school shops, toolrooms, and jobbing shops Basic to all lathes

Turret lathe
Used when many duplicate parts required Equipped with multisided toolpost (turret) to which several different cutting tools mounted
Employed in given sequence

Engine Lathe
Accurate and versatile machine Operations
Turning, tapering, form turning, threading, facing, drilling, boring, grinding, and polishing

Three common
Toolroom Heavy-duty Gap-bed

Lathe Size and Capacity


Designated by largest work diameter that can be swung over lathe ways and generally the maximum distance between centers Manufactured in wide range of sizes
Most common: 9- to 30- in. swing with capacity of 16 in. to 12 feet between centers Typical lathe: 13 in. swing, 6 ft long bed, 36 in. Average metric lathe: 230-330 mm swing and bed length of 500 3000 mm

Lathe Size

Indicated by the swing and the length of the bed

Parts of the Lathe


Headstock

Tailstock

Quick Change Gearbox

Bed

Carriage

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Setting Speeds on a Lathe


Speeds measured in revolutions per minute
Changed by stepped pulleys or gear levers

Belt-driven lathe Safety Note!! NEVER change speeds


Various speeds obtained by changing flat belt when and back gear drive lathe is running. Speeds changed by moving speed levers into proper positions according to r/min chart fastened to headstock

Geared-head lathe

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Lathe Accessories
Divided into two categories
Work-holding, -supporting, and driving devices
Lathe centers, chucks, faceplates Mandrels, steady and follower rests Lathe dogs, drive plates

Cutting-tool-holding devices
Straight and offset toolholders Threading toolholders, boring bars Turret-type toolposts

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Lathe Centers
Work to be turned between centers must have center hole drilled in each end
Provides bearing surface

Support during cutting Most common have solid Morse taper shank 60 centers, steel with carbide tips Care to adjust and lubricate occasionally

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Chucks
Used extensively for holding work for machining operations
Work large or unusual shape

Most commonly used lathe chucks


Three-jaw universal Four-jaw independent Collet chuck

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Three-jaw Universal Chuck


Holds round and hexagonal work Grasps work quickly and accurate within few thousandths/inch Three jaws move simultaneously when adjusted by chuck wrench
Caused by scroll plate into which all three jaws fit

Two sets of jaw: outside chucking and inside chucking


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Four-Jaw Independent Chuck


Used to hold round, square, hexagonal, and irregularly shaped workpieces Has four jaws
Each can be adjusted independently by chuck wrench

Jaws can be reversed to hold work by inside diameter

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Headstock Spindles
Universal and independent chuck fitted to three types of headstock spindles 1. Threaded spindle nose
Screws on in a clockwise direction Held by lock nut that tightens on chuck

2. Tapered spindle nose

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Headstock Spindles
3. Cam-lock spindle nose
Held by tightening cam-locks using T-wrench Chuck aligned by taper on spindle nose

Registration lines on spindle nose Registration lines on cam-lock Cam-locks Cam-lock mating stud on chuck or faceplate
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Collet Chuck
Most accurate chuck Used for high-precision work Spring collets available to hold round, square, or hexagon-shaped workpieces Each collet has range of only few thousandths of an inch over or under size stamped on collet

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Collet Chuck

Special adapter fitted into taper of headstock spindle, and hollow draw bar having internal thread inserted in opposite end of headstock spindle. It draws collet into tapered adapter causing collet to tighten on workpiece.
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Types of Lathe Dogs


Standard bent-tail lathe dog
Most commonly used for round workpieces Available with square-head setscrews of headless setscrews

Straight-tail lathe dog


Driven by stud in driveplate Used in precision turning
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Types of Lathe Dogs


Safety clamp lathe dog
Used to hold variety of work Wide range of adjustment

Clamp lathe dog


Wider range than others Used on all shapes
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Left-Hand Offset Toolholder


Offset to the right Designed for machining work close to chuck or faceplate and cutting right to left Designated by letter L

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Right-Hand Offset Toolholder


Offset to the left Designed for machining work close to the tailstock and cutting left to right
Also for facing operations

Designated by letter R

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Straight Toolholder
General-purpose type Used for taking cuts in either direction and for general machining operations Designated by letter S

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Toolholders for Indexable Carbide Inserts


Held in holder by cam action or clamps Types available
Conventional
Turret-type Heavy-duty toolposts

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Cutting-Off (Parting) Tools


Used when work must be grooved or parted off Long, thin cutting-off blade locked securely in toolholder by either cam lock or locking nut Three types of parting toolholders
Left-hand Right-hand Straight

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Threading Toolholder
Designed to hold special form-relieved thread-cutting tool
Has accurately ground 60 angle
Maintained throughout life of tool
Only top of cutting surface sharpened when becomes dull

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Super Quick-Change Toolpost

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Depth of Cut
Depth of chip taken by cutting tool and onehalf total amount removed from workpiece in one cut Only one roughing and one finishing cut
Roughing cut should be deep as possible to reduce diameter to within .030 to .040 in. (0.76 to 1 mm) of size required Finishing cut should not be less than .005 in.

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Example: Depth of cut on a lathe

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Safety
Be aware of safety requirements in any area of shop Always attempt to observe safety rules Failure results in:
Serious injury Resultant loss of time and pay Loss of production to company

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Safety Precautions
Lathe hazardous if not operated properly Important to keep machine and surrounding area clean and tidy Accidents usually caused by carelessness

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Safety Precautions
Always wear approved safety glasses Rollup sleeves, remove tie and tuck in loose clothing Never wear ring or watch

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Safety Precautions
Do not operate lathe until understand controls Never operate machine if safety guards removed Stop lathe before measure work or clean, oil or adjust machine Do not use rag to clean work or machine when in operation
Rag can get caught and drag in hand

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Safety Precautions
Never attempt to stop a lathe chuck or driveplate by hand Be sure chuck or faceplate mounted securely before starting
If loose, becomes dangerous missile

Always remove chuck wrench after use


Fly out and injure someone Become jammed, damaging wrench or lathe

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Safety Precautions
Move carriage to farthest position of cut and revolve lathe spindle one turn by hand
Ensure all parts clear without jamming Prevent accident and damage to lathe

Keep floor around machine free from grease, oil, metal cuttings, tools and workpieces
Oil and grease can cause falls Objects on floor become tripping hazards

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Safety Precautions
Avoid horseplay at all times Always remove chips with brush
Chips can cause cuts if use hands Chips become embedded if use cloths

Always remove sharp toolbit from toolholder when polishing, filing, cleaning, or making adjustments

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Objectives
Mount and/or remove lathe centers properly
Align lathe centers by visual, trial-cut, and dial-indicator methods

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Lathe Centers
Work machined between centers turned for some portion of length, then reversed, and other end finished Critical when machining work between centers that live center be absolutely true
Concentric work

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To Mount Lathe Centers


Remove any burrs from lathe spindle, centers, or spindle sleeves Clean tapers on lathe centers and in headstock and tailstock spindles Partially insert cleaned center in lathe spindle Force center into spindle Follow same procedure when mounting tailstock center Check trueness of center

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To Remove Lathe Centers


Live center
Use knockout bar pushed through headstock spindle (slight tap) Use cloth over center and hold to prevent damage

Dead center
Turn tailstock handwheel to draw spindle back into tailstock
End of screw contacts end of dead center, forcing it out of spindle

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Grinding Lathe Cutting Tool


Wide variety of cutting tools for lathe
All have certain angles and clearances regardless of shape
Shape and Dimensions of General-purpose Lathe Toolbit

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To Grind a General-Purpose Toolbit


1. Dress face of grinding wheel 2. Grip toolbit firmly, supporting hands on grinder toolrest 3. Hold toolbit at proper angel to grind cutting edge angle
Tilt bottom of toolbit toward wheel and grind 10 side relief or clearance angle

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Cutting edge ~ In long and extend over width of toolbit 10 side relief or clearance angle

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4. While grinding, move toolbit back and forth across face of wheel
Prevents grooving wheel

5. Toolbit must be cooled frequently during grinding


Never overheat toolbit! Never quench stellite or cemented-carbide tools Never grind carbides with aluminum oxide wheel

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6. Grind end cutting edge so it forms angle of a little less than 90 with side cutting edge
Hold tool so that end cutting edge angle and end relief angle of 15 ground at same time

70 to 80 Point Angle

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7. Using toolbit grinding gage, check amount of end relief when toolbit is in toolholder

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Knurling
Process if impressing a diamond-shaped or straight-line patter into the surface of the workpiece
Improve its appearance Provide better gripping surface Increase workpiece diameter when press fit required

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Knurling
Diamond- and straight-pattern rolls available in three styles
Fine

Medium
Course
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Knurling Tool
Toolpost-type toolholder on which pair of hardened-steel rolls mounted
Knurling tool with one set of rolls in self-centering head
Knurling tool with three sets of rolls in revolving head
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Universal Knurling Tool System


Dovetailed shank and as many as seven interchangeable knurling heads that can produce wide range of knurling patterns Combines in one tool
Versatility Rigidity Ease of handling Simplicity

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Procedure to Knurl in a Lathe


1. Mount work between centers and mark required length to be knurled
If work held in chuck for knurling, right end of work should be supported with revolving tailstock center

2. Set lathe to run at one-quarter speed required for turning 3. Set carriage feed to .015 to .030 in.

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4. Set center of floating head of knurling tool even with dead-center point

5. Set knurling tool at right angles to workpiece and tighten it securely


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6. Start machine and lightly touch rolls against work to check tracking

7. Move knurling tool to end of work so only half the roll face bears against work
8. Force knurling tool into work approximately .025 in. and start lathe
OR

Start lathe and then force knurling tool into work until diamond pattern come to point

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9. Stop lathe and examine pattern 10. Once pattern correct, engage automatic carriage feed and apply cutting fluid to knurling rolls 11. Knurl to proper length and depth
Do not disengage feed until full length has been knurled; otherwise, rings will be formed on knurled pattern

12. If knurling pattern not to point after length has been knurled, reverse lathe feed and take another pass across work

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Grooving
Done at end of thread to permit full travel of nut up to a shoulder or at edge of Square shoulder for proper fit Also called recessing, undercutting, or necking Rounded grooves used Round where there is strain on part V-shaped
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Procedure to Cut a Groove


1. Grind toolbit to desired size and shape of groove required
2. Lay out location of groove 3. Set lathe to half the speed for turning 4. Mount workpiece in lathe

5. Set toolbit to center height

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6. Locate toolbit on work at position where groove is to be cut 7. Start lathe and feed cutting tool toward work using crossfeed handle until toolbit marks work lightly 8. Hold crossfeed handle in position and set graduated collar to zero 9. Calculate how far crossfeed screw must be turned to cut groove to proper depth 10. Feed toolbit into work slowly using crossfeed handle

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11. Apply cutting fluid to point of cutting tool


To ensure cutting tool will not bind in groove, move carriage slightly to left and to right while grooving Should chatter develop, reduce spindle speed

12. Stop lathe and check depth of groove with outside calipers or knife-edge verniers
Safety note: Always wear safety goggles when grooving on a lathe

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Threads
Used for hundreds of years for holding parts together, making adjustments, and transmitting power and motion Art of producing threads continually improved Massed-produced by taps, dies, thread rolling, thread milling, and grinding

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Threads
Thread
Helical ridge of uniform section formed on inside or outside of cylinder or cone

Used for several purposes:


Fasten devices such as screws, bolts, studs, and nuts Provide accurate measurement, as in micrometer Transmit motion Increase force

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Thread Terminology
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