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presenter B.S.Chaithanya PG


The heart (_____ g) is normally formed/other and located in its usual position in the left chest/other, with its apex pointing to the left/right/midline. There is a minimal/moderate/large amount of epicardial fat. The epicardial surface is glistening and smooth/ other. The atrial chambers are not dilated/dilated. The interatrial septum is intact/other. The atrioventricular connections arepresent/other, and the leaflets of the atrioventricular valves are thin and delicate/other. The chordae tendineae are thin/other. The interventricular septum is intact/other. The myocardium is firm and redbrown/other. The right and left ventricular free walls measure ___cm and ____ cm, respectively. The outflow tracts are widely patent/other, and the semilunar

The pulmonary artery is of appropriate caliber and configuration/other; its intimal surface is glistening and intact/other. The coronary arteries course over the surface of the heart in the usual fashion/other. There is balanced/ right dominant/left dominant coronary artery circulation. The coronary arteries are patent/other and free of atherosclerosis/other. The ascending aorta is of the usual caliber and arches left/other before descending along the left/other side of the vertebral column. The major arteries arise from the aortic arch and descending aorta in the usual configuration/other and are patent/ other. The intimal surface of the aorta is smooth/other. The venae cavae and other major veins are patent and thin walled/other.

The heart (_____ g)

easy way to remember is heart wts 4-5% of body weight .

is normally formed/other and located in its usual position in the left chest/other

Heart lies in the mediastinum with long axis oriented from the hypogastrium towards the right shoulder. Only a small bare area is seen otherwise, it is covered by the right and left lungs . Two thirds of the anterior surface of the heart is formed by the RV and one third by LV.

The heart has base and apex . The base is formed by the atria and greater vessels which tether the heart. Normally two thirds of the heart is to the left of the midline . Situs solitus- normal position of organs Situs inversus complete reversal of normal position Situs ambigous-situs is not clear ie some organs are in normal position while others are inversus .

Situs solitus with dextrocardia or situs inversus with levocardia indicate complex anamolies there fore look for venous anamolies . Trace the pulmonary veins before separating the abdominal viscera . Check the superior venocava, often there is a left SVC draining into the coronary sinus or the left atria .

its apex pointing to the left/right/midline.

Levocardia apex pointing to the left. Mesocardia- apex pointing to the midline. Dextrocardia- apex pointing to the right .

There is a minimal/moderate/large amount ofIncreased epicardial and subepicardial epicardial fat

fat: obesity, aging

The atrial chambers are not dilated/dilated.

Increased chamber size: left atrial chamber with aging; valvular insufficiency; left-sided heart failure due to ischemic heart disease, hypertension, aortic/mitral valve abnormalities; nonischemic myocardial diseases; isolated primary right ventricular dilation and secondary right atrial dilation due to rightsided heart failure from chronic pulmonary hypertension

The interatrial septum is intact/other.