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EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENTS

AND
CHANGE

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• Social movements refer to collective
efforts to bring about change when
large groups are dissatisfied with
existing conditions.
• Sources of change in the school system:
– Students
– Teachers
– Administrators
– Parents
– Politicians
– Book publishers

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Social Movements

Types of Social Movements:


• Reform movements: certain reforms are needed
especially in specific areas of society.
• Regressive movements: to “put the clock back” reverse
the current trends, and return to a former state of affairs.
• Revolutionary movements: deeply dissatisfied with the
existing order and seek to reorganize society
• Utopian movements: “loosely constructed collectivities
that envision a radically changed and blissful state
(Robertson, 1989, pp. 383-84)

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THE THEORIES
• CONFLICT THEORY: the educations system and
schools are controlled by politicians, schools produce the
capitalistic workers reproduction of social class
system.
– Needs to restructuring the outdated educational systems, lead to
less rigid school system . Need strong democratic movements
for equal opportunity in schools.
• FUNCTIONAL THEORY: the need of the school system
with basics, discipline, and accountability.

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• Integration attempts for nation building
through Malaysian Education System.
– National curriculum at all stages of schooling
– Centralized examination
– National pool of teacher supply/training
– National language acquisition/compulsory
– Government schools/government aided
schools
– Vision school

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CHANGE
• DEF: the process of planned and unplanned
qualitative or quantitative alterations in social
phenomena (Vego, 1989, p.9)
• DEF: planned social change refers to deliberate,
conscious, and collaborative efforts by change
agents to improve operations of social system
(Bennis, Benne, and Chin, 1985, p.280)

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COMPONENTS OF CHANGE PROCESS
• IDENTITY of change refers to a specific social phenomenon
undergoing transformation.
• LEVEL of change delineates the location in a social system where a
particular change takes place.
• DURATION refers to the question of how long a particular change
form endures after it has been accepted.
• DIRECTION of change may indicate development or decay,
progress or decline.
• MAGNITUDE may be based on a 3-part scheme of incremental or
marginal, comprehensive, and revolutionary change.
• Rate of change may be based on an arbitrary scale such as fast or
slow.

 Change can be:


 Planned change because of manifest functions or stated purpose
 Unplanned change because of latent functions

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• roles of ICT ( Information Communication
Technology ) in the Malaysian education
system.

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• Change and levels of analysis

1. The individual level: change directed


towards person holding position within the
educ system
2. Organizational level: change within a school.
3. Institutional or societal level: large
systemwide change
4. Cultural level: change in societal attitudes
and values.

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Sources of change:
• Stresses are “sources external to an
org”.
• Have 4 categories:
1. Population size and composition
2. The human factor
3. Material technology
4. Natural environment

– Also urbanization, industralization,


modernization, technocratic society.
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(cont)
• Strains are sources of conflict and
pressure that develop within the internal
orgn
• 3 internal strains:
1. Individuals or subgroups within the org.
2. Deviant individuals or groups within the org.
3. Ideology, goals, structure and resources.

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SOCIOLOGIST ROLE IN THE EDUCATIONAL
CHANGE

• Do basic research
• Provides knowledge about the system of education not
available elsewhere.
• Problem research and integration
• Teaching
• Evaluation research
• Policy formation

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CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD AND EFFECTIVE
TEACHER

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• ‘Cooling-out’ refers to a process in higher
education
• the differences between educational sociology
and sociology of education
• Sociology of education
A broad analysis of education using basic
sociological concepts, including schools as
organizations, socialization, stratification, and
ethnic relations

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