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T&D Losses

Historical background for high Losses.

Developing Countries could not invest in network expansion commensurate with rapid load growth Network expansion carried out on adhocism & haphazard basis Diversity factor of 1.5 was adopted which is now lost due to restricted supply Usage of lower size conductor, low voltage pockets, absence of reactive power control etc.

Distribution System Efficiency improvement

Distribution loss : Contributing factors Technical Inadequate investment in sub transmission & distribution Over loading of system without strengthening & augmentation. Haphazard growth with only objective of electrifying new areas. Large scale rural electrification through long 11 kV & LT lines. Too many transformation systems. Poor quality of equipments.

Commercial Theft of electricity. Tampering of meters.

Delay in meter billing collection. Unmetered supply to Agriculture. domestic supply. Unauthorised connections.

Efficiency of The Indian Power Sector


Distribution Efficiency Improvement Measures

SHORT TERM MEASURES Short term adopting LT less / less LT system of distribution Installation of low capacity / efficient amorphous cores transformers for feeding individual load or near a load center Installation of capacitors Strategic location of substations to improve regulation Remote control for the load management Redesign of conductors for high loss areas Computerisation at sub-station for energy consumption accounting

Distribution Efficiency Improvement Measures

LONG TERM MEASURES Mapping of complete electrical distribution system including creation of database of various operating parameters Carrying out distribution system studies Long term plans for improvement / strengthening of distribution system Commercial Loss Reduction Prevent pilferage of energy Installation of energy accounting system and financial energy management system

Causes for Technical Losses

Lengthy Distribution (11 KV& LT) lines
11 KV & LT lines are extended for unduly long distances in Rural Areas (low load density)

Inadequate Conductor sizes

Initially lower size conductors not replaced with load growth.

Haphazard and adhoc planning ignoring scientific methods Wrong location of DTRs with incorrect ratings Low power factor - no control over reactive power Low voltage pockets Bad workmanship

Causes for technical losses (Contd.)

Wrong location of DTRs DTRs are not located centrally & farthest consumers face low voltages For every 10% voltage drop losses increase by 21% and for every 20% voltage drop losses increase by 44% DTRs to be relocated at load centre to minimize losses. Over rated DTRs Under loaded DTRs are a source for high avoidable iron losses Taking village as a unit the loads can be readjusted among all DTRs in the village for optimal use of installed capacity

Causes for technical losses (Contd.) Low Voltage Pockets Where as the permissible voltage variations are +6% the voltages at some points go below 10% and in rare cases even more. Full load current drawn by motors go up by 15% for every 10% drop in voltage On load tap changers are not made use of due to certain inhibitions (unexplainable reasons)

Causes for technical losses (Contd.) Low Power Factor In majority of Distribution circuits the p.f. is between 0.65 & 0.75 Low p.f. contributes to high distribution losses When shunt capacitors of adequate rating are fixed at load end, experiments showed
10% improvement in voltage 20% reduction in current 6% overall reduction in energy.

Causes for technical losses (Contd.)

Bad workmanship Bad joints are a source of power loss Proper jointing techniques should be adopted for firm connection Connections at line jumpers, Trs. Bushing rods, drop-out fuses, isolators, LT switch etc shall be periodically inspected. Timely replacement of deteriorated wires, worn out clamps etc.

Inadequate Conductor Size

Main consideration for selection of conductor is voltage drop. Approved voltage regulation in Dn. Lines is + 6%. Current carrying capacity at ambient temperatures is also a consideration. Voltage regulation is
(ES - ER) ER ES = Sending end voltage ER = Receiving end voltage

Low Voltage Pockets

Permissible voltage variation is + 6% but several low voltage pockets exist with 10% and even more lesser voltages. Every 10% voltage drop increases losses by 21% Drop of 10% in voltage causes increase of current drawn by induction motors by 15% Bulk of the rural loads and small scale industries are with induction motors. Inhibitions (unexplainable) towards using on load tap changers. Even off load tap changing (prior to on-set of monsoon) as per seasonal variations is not done. Switched / fixed capacitor banks are not made full use of.

Low Power factor

In most of the distributions power factor ranges from 0.65 to 0.75 Low power factor contributes to high losses due to higher current drawal and losses are proportional to square of the current. Low p.f. also causes low voltages.

Effect of Low Power Factor

Increase in reactive power (MVAR) of network which increase the total current in the system from the source end. Increase in I2R power losses. Voltage level at load end is decreased. KVA loading on supply source increases.

Sectoral Power Demand & Inductive Loading

Average power factor of common appliances

Incandescent lamps Fluorescent lamps Neon lamps used for advertisement Arc lamps used in cinemas Fans Induction heaters Arc furnace Induction furnaces Arc welders Resistance welders Induction motors Fractional h.p. motors 0.98 to 1.0 0.6 to 0.8 0.4 to 0.5 0.3 to 0.7 0.5 to 0.8 0.85 0.85 0.6 0.3 to 0.4 0.65 0.5 to 0.85 0.4 to 0.75

Reduction of losses with improvement of pf.

Load KW 300 300

PF 0.7 1.0

KVA 428 300

Amperage 38.9 27.2

Line Losses KW 27.2 13.4

Remarks Before After

Low Power factor (Contd.)

LT losses can be considerably reduced by installing shunt capacitors at load end. A case study has indicated that when LT capacitors of adequate rating are connected at Rural pump sets - Voltage increased by 10% - Current decreased by 20% - Over all energy out put from transformer reduced by 6%

DTR location and selection of capacity at Load Centres

The no. of DTRs and cumulative capacity are too high comparative to L.T. demand. Taking village as a unit, studies are to be made and ensure each DTR is loaded to 60% of its capacity. Small link lines can be laid for reconfiguration. Such an exercise gave good results in Discoms of A.P. Judicial selection of transformer capacity is important.

HVDS Existing L.V. Distribution System is changed to HVDS by extending H T lines very close to loads and installing small size transformers LT less system is to be achieved starting from Less LT HT to LT ratio which is now skewed is to be improved. For 100 KVA load amperage at 11 KV is 5 amperes where as at LT it is 140 amperes.

Interaction with Consumers

Consumers opined that . The motors are drawing less current and hence life span of motor has increased. The rate of motor burnouts are also reduced. The motors running smoothly without hissing noise. The transformer failures are almost avoided. Theft of energy eliminated since the consumers will not allow others to pilfer from their Distribution Transformer. Interruptions have been minimized and quality of supply assured. Due to reliability of supply, 2 crops can be raised and can increase the productivity.

Adverse Effect of load shedding

No power for 2.5 to 12 hours causing consumer unrest. Consumer dis-satisfaction causing wrong opinion about company. Loss of faith in companys capability resulting in image distortion. Manhandling causing loss of confidence in company staff. Damage to companys assets causing financial loss. Unequal load shedding in urban and rural areas causes discrimination in urban and rural consumer. All these parameters forced company to think for providing uninterrupted supply to lighting load in rural areas. In rural areas 3 phase motive power i.e. Ag pump demand is very high (90%) as compared to single phase lighting load (10%). To provide lighting power to these consumers in rural areas, the idea of single phasing came up.

Single Phasing Project

Proposed Planning Identification of 11 KV outgoing feeders supplying power to villages as well as Ag pumps and reorientation of 11 KV feeder for segregation. Providing two phase changeover type Isolator. Providing 3 nos. single phase transformers DP near existing conventional transformer DP feeding residential consumer of village. Reorientation of residential LT lines for segregation.