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Seminar Presentation on

Finite Element Analysis of Polymer Composites


UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Dr. J.S. Saini Assistant Professor Department of Mechanical Engg. Thapar University, Patiala

SUBMITTED BY Jatinder Singh ME(CAD/CAM&ROBOTICS) 801181018

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION TO COMPOSITES
CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES ADVANTAGES OF COMPOSITES DISADVANTAGES OF COMPOSITES LITERATURE REVIEW CONCLUSION REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION
COMPOSITES

Composite Material is a combination of two or more distinct materials(constituents), having a recognizable interface between them. CONSTITUENT MATERIALS/PHASES MATRIX PHASE:- Matrix phase is the primary phase, which holds the fibre together, protects from, shares a load with the dispersed phase. DISPERSED(REINFORCING)PHASE:It is the secondary phase imbedded in the matrix in a discontinuous form. It is usually stronger than the matrix and provides strength to composites.

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES
1.

CLASSIFICATION WITH RESPECT TO THE MATRIX CONSTITUENT a. Organic matrix composites Polymer matrix composites Carbon matrix composites b. Metal matrix composites c. Ceramic matrix composites

Classification with respect to the matrix constituent

a.

ORGANIC MATRIX COMPOSITES:- Composites in which matrix material used is organic are called organic matrix compsites. It generally include two classes of composites. Polymer matrix composites Carbon matrix composites Polymer matrix composites:- Polymer materials are used as matrix materials as they can be processed easily, possess lightweight and desirable mechanical properties. Two main kinds of polymers are thermosets and thermoplastics. Thermosets(e.g. polyesters, epoxy etc) Thermoplastics(eg. polypropylene, polyamide)

Carbon matrix composites:- It is a high strength composite

material, also resistant to high temperature in nonoxidising atmosphere. Mostly used in components that are exposed to higher temperature.
b. METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES:- Composites in which

metal is used as matrix material are called are Metal matrix composites. Properties like strength, fracture toughness and stiffness are offered by metal matrices are higher than those offered by their polymer counterparts.

CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES:- Ceramics can be described as solid materials which exhibit very strong ionic bonding, having properties like high melting points, good corrosion resistance, stability at elevated temperatures and high compressive strength. 2. CLASSIFICATION WITH RESPECT TO THE REINFORCEMENT CONSTITUENT a. Fiber Reinforcements b. Laminar Composites c. Flake Composites d. Filled Composites e. Particulate Reinforced Composites.
c.

Classification with respect to the Reinforcement constituent

FIBER REINFORCEMENTS:- Fibers are the important class of reinforcements, as they satisfy the desired conditions and transfer strength to the matrix constituent influencing and enhancing their properties as desired. b. LAMINAR COMPOSITES:- Laminar composites are materials comprising of layers of materials bonded together. These may be of several layers of two or more metal materials occurring alternately or in a determined order more than once, as required for a specific purpose. c. FLAKE COMPOSITES:-Flakes have various advantages over fibers in structural applications like parallel flakes filled composites provide uniform mechanical properties.
a.

d. FILLED COMPOSITES:-Filled composites result from

addition of filler materials to plastic matrices to replace a portion of the matrix, enhance or change the properties of the composites. The fillers also enhance strength and reduce weight. e. PARTICULATE REINFORCED COMPOSITES:Microstructures of metal and ceramics composites, which show particles of one phase strewn in the other, are known as particle reinforced composites. Square, triangular and round shapes of reinforcement are mostly used, but the dimensions of all their sides are observed to be more or less equal.

ADVANTAGES OF COMPOSITES
High resistance to fatigue and corrosion degradation.

High strength or stiffness to weight ratio.


Improved dent resistance. Composites are dimensionally stable.

Manufacturing and assembly is simple.


Close tolerances can be achieved without machining. Improved friction and wear properties. Excellent heat sinking properties.

DISADVANTAGES OF COMPOSITES
High cost of raw material and fabrication.

Composites are more brittle than that of metals.


Disposal and reuse is very difficult. Composites are difficult to attach.

Repair work of the composites is difficult.


Analysis of the composite materials is difficult as compare

to that of metals.

LITERATURE REVIEW
Composites have been extensively used in aeronautical, automotive, marine and sporting industries for a wide range of applications because of their attractive properties. In the past years a lot of work has been done to investigate and analyze the Polymer composites. A review of the literature is presented here.

Cardon et al. (2000) described a combined nonlinear

damage model, after an overview of the most important prediction methodologies available for the durability analysis of time dependent material systems. The results of the model on some specific gravity epoxy systems were presented.
Leveque

et al. (2005) developed a multiscale approach(based on experimental investigation) for analyzing and modeling the different aspects (thermal aging, thermomechanical damage, degrading resulting from physical and chemical aging) of PMCs.

Jansson et al. (2005) investigated the deformation and

fracture behaviour of a generic injection moulded structure reinforced by a glass fibre/polypropylene by Finite Element analysis and experimentally. The global deformation behaviour in both tension and bending, predicted by Finite Element analysis were compared with experimental data.
Fu et al. (2008) presented a critical review of the

experimental results and theories of the mechanical properties of particulate polymer composites. The effect of these mechanical properties on composite strength and toughness was discussed.

Tang et al. (2008) investigated the mechanical properties

of perfluorosulfonic acid membranes (PFSA), both experimentally and numerically using Finite Element Analysis. The results indicate that the reinforced PFSA membrane exhibits higher strength than the unreinforced membrane.
Shindo et al. (2008) experimentally investigated the

interlaminar fracture and damage behavior of woven GFRP laminates at cryogenic temperatures. The Finite Element Analysis was used and the results agrees fairly well with the experimental results.

Kishore et al. (2009) studied failure modes and predicted

failure loads of three and four pin joints using experimental and Finite Element Analysis in uni-directional glass fibre/epoxy composite laminates.
Kishore et al. (2010) performed a 3D Finite Element

Analysis, the propagation of damage was studied and failure load was predicted in three and four-pin joints by equivalent material properties. The predicted the strength of the joint and the results found were very close to the experimental values.

Jumahat et al. (2010) investigated the failure mechanism

of (UD) toughened resin composites which were subjected to longitudinal compressive loading. Based on SEM and optical microscopy of failed specimens the possible sequence of failure initiation and propagation were purposed.
De Souza and Leiwald (2010) presented a new testing

method of wear evaluation in polymeric materials in sheet metal forming using a strip drawing test facility. The friction and wear behaviour of two polymeric composites was investigated on sheet metal counterface materials.

Santiuste et al. (2010) analysed the mechanisms of chip

formation of Glass and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites with FE Analysis. The significant differences were seen when comparing machining induced damage predicted with the model for both materials.
Duncan et al. (2010) found experimentally the critical

aspect ratio and the interfacial shear strength for the multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT)/polymer composites. The results are compared with results obtained from FEA of the material.

Needleman et al. (2010) analyzed the tensile response of

altered polymer properties surrounding each carbon nanotube (CNT) in a CNT reinforced polymer composite and the effects of the interphase on reinforcement debonding was explored.
Khalili and Saboori(2010) investigated, tapered(FRP)

composite by Finite Element Analysis. The effect of various parameters at the pole tip were evaluated by ANSYS and results were compared with published literature and observed a good agreement.

Gray and McCarthy(2010) developed and validated a

global bolted joint model (GBJM) for highly efficient modeling strategy for bolted composite joints. This model was validated using both 3D Finite Element models and experiments, on both single and multi-bolt joints.
Seleem et al. (2010) numerically investigated, the mode of

failure of both steel and steelconcrete composite beams. The 3D Finite Element Analysis was adopted to simulate the nonlinear behavior of these beams and the results obtained were compared with experimental results found in the literature.

Gentilleau et al. (2011) developed a Finite Element model

to analyse multilayer polymer composites. The displacements obtained experimentally were compared with FE results and the liner influence on structure behavior is shown.
Butylina et al. (2011) experimentally found the physical

and mechanical properties of wood-polymer composites made with virgin or recycled polypropylene, or a mixture of these. The results suggested that the use of a mixture of both resulted in the composite having qualities lower than those of composites made with one type.

Saboori and khalili (2011) presented a Finite Element

model for tapered FRP transmission poles and the results was verified with those obtained by ANSYS commercial Finite Element Software. The effects of various parameters are investigated.
Raimondo et al. (2012) presented a theory and approach

was implemented in commercially available software for nonlinear FE analysis (ABAQUS/Explicit) and was validated against already published data in the literature.(UD-CFRP)

CONCLUSION
The Analysis has been mainly done using materials,

Polymer Matrix Composites, Particulatepolymer composites, Composite Laminates, Fibre Reinforced Polymer composites, UD-FRP composites. ANSYS and ABAQUS are the mostly used softwares of Finite Element Analysis. Physical and Mechanical properties like stiffness, toughness, aspect ratio, displacement, shear modulus, interlaminar shear strength(ISS) are the properties mostly considered for the analysis.

THANK YOU

A.H. Cardon, Y. Qin and C. Van Vossole, Durability analysis of polymer matrix composites for structural applications, Computers and Structures, vol.76, pp.31-41, 2000. David Leveque, Anne Schieffer, Anne Mavel and Jean-Francois Maire,

REFERENCES

Analysis of how thermal aging affects the long-term mechanical behavior and strength of polymermatrix composites, Composites Science and Technology, vol.65, pp.395-401, 2005. N. Jansson, P.-O. Hagstrand, M.D. Wakeman and J.-A.E. Manson, Finite element modelling and testing of an injection moulded generic tow reinforced structure, Composites: Part B, vol.36, pp.487495, 2005. Shao-Yun Fu, Xi-Qiao Feng, Bernd Lauke and Yiu-Wing Mai, Effects of particle size, particle/matrix interface adhesion and particle loading on mechanical properties of particulatepolymer composites, Composites: Part B, vol. 39, pp.933961, 2008. Yaliang Tang, Ahmet Kusoglu, Anette M. Karlsson, Michael H. Santare, Simon Cleghorn and William B. Johnson, Mechanical properties of a reinforced composite polymer electrolyte membrane and its simulated performance in PEM fuel cells, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 175, pp.817825, 2008. Yasuhide Shindo, Susumu Takahashi, Tomo Takeda, Fumio Narita and Shinya Watanabe, Mixed-mode interlaminar fracture and damage characterization in woven fabric-reinforced glass/epoxy composite laminates at cryogenic temperatures using the finite element and improved test methods, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.75, pp.5101-5112, 2008.

A. Nanda Kishore, S.K. Malhotra and N. Siva Prasad, Failure analysis of multi-pin joints in glass fibre/epoxy composite laminates, Composite Structures, vol.91, pp.266 277, 2009. A. Nanda Kishore, S. K. Malhotra, and N. Siva Prasad, Strength Prediction in Multipin Joints from Equivalent Material Properties in Composite Laminates, Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures, vol.17, pp.204214, 2010. A. Jumahat, C. Soutis, F.R. Jones and A. Hodzic, Fracture mechanisms and failure analysis of carbon fibre/toughened epoxy composites subjected to compressive loading, Composite Structures, vol.92, pp.295-395, 2010. J.H.C. de Souza and M. Liewald, Analysis of the tribological behaviour of polymer composite tool materials for sheet metal forming, Wear, vol.268, pp.241-248, 2010. Carlos Santiuste, Xavier Soldani and Maria Henar Migulez, Machining FEM model of long fiber composites for aeronautical components, Composite Structures, vol.92, pp.691-698, 2010. Rene K. Duncan, Xinyu G. Chen, J.B. Bult, L.C. Brinson and L.S. Schadler, Measurement of the critical aspect ratio and interfacial shear strength in MWNT/polymer composites, Composites Science and Technology, vol.70, pp.599-605, 2010. A. Needleman, T.L. Borders, L.C. Brinson, V.M. Flores and L.S. Schadler, Effect of an interphase region on debonding of a CNT reinforced polymer composite, Composites Science and Technology, vol.70, pp.2207-2215, 2010. S.M.R. Khalili and B. Saboori, Transient dynamic analysis of tapered FRP composite transmission poles using finite element method, Composite Structures, vol.92, pp.275283, 2010.

P.J. Gray and C.T. McCarthy, A global bolted joint model for finite element analysis of load distributions in multi-bolt composite joints, Composites: Part B, vol.41, pp.317325, 2010. M.H. Seleem, I.A. Sharaky and H.E.M. Sallam, Flexural behavior of steel beams strengthened by carbon fiber reinforced polymer plates Three

dimensional finite element simulation, Materials and Design, vol.31, pp.1317 1324, 2010. Benoit Gentilleau, Maxime Bertin, Fabienne Touchard and Jean-Claude Grandidier, Stress analysis in specimens made of multi-layer polymer/composite used for hydrogen storage application: Comparison with experimental results, Composite Structures, vol.93, pp.2760-2767, 2011. Svetlana Butylina, Ossi Martikka, and Timo Karki, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Wood-Polypropylene Composites Made with Virgin and/or Recycled Polypropylene, Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, vol.50, pp.1040-1046, 2011. B. Saboori and S.M.R. Khalili, Static analysis of tapered FRP transmission poles using finite element method, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, vol.47, pp.247255, 2011. L.Raimondo, L.Iannucci, P.Robinson and P.T.Curtis, Modelling of strain rate effects on matrix dominated elastic and failure properties of unidirectional fibre-reinforced polymermatrix composites, Composites Science and Technology, vol.72, pp.819-827, 2012.