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Introduction to Control Systems

CCS-532 Ref: Chapter 1 & 2: Dorf, R. C. & Bishop, R. H. , Modern Control Systems Chapter 1 & 2: Nise, N. S. Control System Engineering

Dr Pavan Chakraborty IIIT-Allahabad

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Systems

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What is Control and Control System?


Control is the process of causing a system variable to conform to some desired value. Manual control Automatic control (involving machines only the topic in this course). A Control system is an interconnection of components forming a system configuration that will provide a desired system response. Types of control Open-loop control

Closed-loop (feedback) control *

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What is Control?
Manual versus Automatic Control
Control is the process of causing a system variable (e.temperature, position) to conform to some desired value or trajectory, called reference value or trajectory Example: driving a car implies controlling the vehicle to follow the desired path and arrive safely at a planned destination

If you drive the car yourself, you are performing a manual control of the car. If you design a machine (or use a computer) to do it, then you build an automatic control system
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Open-loop/Closed-loop Systems (Contd)


Open Loop

Closed-Loop (Feedback system)

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Example 1: Car and Driver

Objective function: To control the direction and speed of the car

Outputs: actual direction and speed of the car


Control inputs: road markings and speed signs Disturbances: road surface and grade, wind, obstacles Possible subsystems: the car alone, power steering system, braking system, . . .

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Example 1: Car and Driver


Functional Block Diagram and Time Responses

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Response of a position controls Systems showing effects of hi and low controller gain on the output response.

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Example 2: Antenna Positioning Control System Original system: the antenna with electric motor drive systems.

Control objective: To point the antenna in a desired reference direction.


Control inputs: Drive motor voltages. Outputs: The elevation and azimuth of the antenna. Disturbances: Wind, rain, snow.
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Example 2: Antenna Positioning Control System


Original system: the antenna with electric motor drive systems.

Control objective: To point the antenna in a desired reference direction.


Control inputs: Drive motor voltages. Outputs: The elevation and azimuth of the antenna. Disturbances: Wind, rain, snow.
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Figure 1.8
The search for extraterrestrial life is being carried out with radio antennas like the one pictured here. A radio antenna is an example of a system with position controls.
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Peter Menzel.

Figure 1.9
a. system concept; b. detailed layout; c. schematic;

Antenna azimuth position control system:

d. functional block diagram

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Figure P1.1 Potentiometer


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Antenna Positioning Control System:


Functional Block Diagram

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General Structure of Control Systems

Elements in control systems: System/Plant/Process Sensors Actuators Controllers

Properties of control systems: Stability

Performance
Robustness

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Control System Components


System, plant or process (to be controlled)
Actuators (converts the control signal to a power signal) Sensors (provides measurement of the system output)

Reference input (represents the desired output)


Error detection (forms the control error) Controller (operates on the control error to form the control signal, sometimes called compensators)

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Basic Integrants in Control Systems


Analysis Given a system, to analyze the systems 1. Stability 2. Dynamic characteristics 3. Steady-state characteristics

Design (Synthesis) Design a new system or compensate (modify) an existing system for
1. Stability guarantee

2. Good dynamic performance


3. Satisfactory steady-state performance
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Methods to be Covered for

Analysis and Design in the Course Modeling Laplace transforms and transfer functions, state-space model
Time-domain method Time-domain performance specifications Stability, transient and steady-state responses Complex-domain method Root locus method for analysis and design of control systems Frequency-domain method Frequency-domain performance specifications Nyquist plots and Bode diagrams for analysis and design of control systems Analysis and design methods based on state-space models

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Control System Design Objectives


Primary objectives: 1. Dynamic stability 2. Accuracy 3. Speed of response

Additional considerations:
4. Robustness (insensitivity to parameter variation) 5. Cost of control

6. System reliability

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Control System Design Steps

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Figure 1.1 Simplified description of a control system

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

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Figure 1.2 Elevators


a. Early elevators were controlled by hand ropes or an elevator operator. Here, a rope is cut to demonstrate the safety brake, an innovation in early elevators; b. Modern Duo-lift elevators make their way up the Grande Arche in Paris, driven by one motor, with each car counterbalancing the other. Today, elevators are fully automatic, using control systems to regulate position and velocity.

Photos courtesy of United Technologies Otis Elevator.

Control Systems Engineering, Fourth Edition by Norman S. Nise Copyright 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

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Figure 1.3
Rover was built to work in contaminated areas at Three Mile Island in Middleton, PA, where a nuclear accident occurred in 1979. The remote controlled robots long arm can be seen at the front of the vehicle.
Photo Hank Morgan/Rainbow/PNI.

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Figure 1.4
a. Video laser disc player;
(a)

b. objective lens reading pits on a laser disc; c. optical path for play back showing tracking mirror rotated by a control system to keep the laser beam positioned on the pits.

(b)

(c)

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(c) Pioneer Electronics, Inc.

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Figure 1.7 Computer hard disk drive, showing disks and read/write head

Courtesy of Quantum Corp.

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Figure 1.6 Block diagrams of control systems:

a. open-loop system;

b. closed-loop system
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Figure1.5 Elevator input and output

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Figure 1.11 The control system design process

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Control Systems Design Process

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Figure 1.12 Equivalent block diagram for the antenna


azimuth position control system

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Table 1.1
Test waveforms used in control systems

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Figure1.5 Elevator input and output

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Figure P1.2 Aircraft attitude defined

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Figure P1.3 Winder

J. Ayers, 1988.

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Figure P1.4 Control of a nuclear reactor

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Figure P1.5, Grinder system

1997, ASME.

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Figure P1.9 High-speed rail system showing pantograph and catenary

1997, ASME.

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Figure P1.8 RLC network

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