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The Thoracic Cavity

Boundaries of and Structures Within

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Body Cavities
Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity
2 Pleural Mediastinum

Divided by Diaphragm Abdominopelvic

Abdominal Pelvic

Serous membrane = Serosa

Simple squamous epithelium + areolar connective tissue 2 Layers
Outer layer = PARIETAL serosa Inner layer = VISCERAL serosa

Between them = Serous Cavity containing Serous Fluid

Serous fluid is blood filtrate + secretions by 2 layers of membrane Allows movement of organs with reduced friction

Types of Serous Membranes

Pleural = surrounds lungs Pericardium = surrounds heart, slightly modified Peritoneal = surrounds some abdominal organs

Pleural Cavities
Surround the lungs Pleural fluid secreted by pleural membranes
Holds layers together Reduces friction of organs

Benefit of Compartmentalization

pg 159

Pleural Cavities
2 Layers
Visceral pleura (inner)
root of lungs marks transition external surface of lungs

Parietal pleura (outer)

inner surface of thoracic wall superior surface of diaphragm lateral surface of mediastinum pg 161

Pleural Abnormalities
Pleural Effusion
Excess fluid in the pleural cavity More than 20X
Usually less than 1 ml of fluid

Air located in pleural space

Pg 238

Divisions of Mediastinum
Superior (to heart)
Contains: thymus, cranial vena cava, trachea, esophagus, nerves

Inferior Anterior (to heart)

Contains: thymus

Posterior (to heart)

Contains: aorta, esophagus, nerves, caudal vena cava, trachea, bronchi,

Contains: heart + pericardium pg 177

Boundaries of Mediastinum
parietal pleura of lungs

ventral parietal pleura

dorsal parietal pleura

dome of the neck

diaphragmatic pleura pg 159

Respiratory Tract
Upper Respiratory Tract
Superior to Larynx

Lower Respiratory Tract

Larynx Trachea Primary Bronchi Secondary Bronchi Rest of Bronchial Tree Lungs

pg 992 pg 168

Trachea = windpipe
Starts at Larynx and travels through mediastinum Located Anterior to Esophagus Trachea terminates into 2 primary bronchi entering lungs Walls contain 16-20 C shaped rings Hyaline Cartilage Trachealis Muscle (smooth muscle and soft CT) Layers (deep to superficial)
Mucosa = Ciliated Psuedostratified Epithelium Submucosa- contains seromucous glands Adventitia made of connective tissue, contains cartilage rings

pg 966

Bronchial Tree
Primary (main) Bronchi
Bifurcation of trachea Basically the same structure Cartilage rings Posterior to pulmonary vessels Right is wider, vertical, shorter

Secondary (lobar) Bronchi

Each primary bronchi divides Same structure as primary bronchi Right lung has 3, Left has 2

Tertiary (segmental) Bronchi Up to 23 divisions

pg 168

Bronchial Tree (continued)

further divisions, < 1 mm diameter

Terminal Bronchioles
further divisions, 0.5 mm diameter

Respiratory Zone
Respiratory Bronchioles Alveolar Ducts Alveolar Sacs
Terminal bunches of Alveoli Respiratory exchange chamber Among alveoli are blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics

Respiratory Zone (continued)

Lining the Walls of Alveoli
Respiratory Membrane
Type I cells = simple squamous epithelial cells Basal lamina and fine areolar CT Covered with capillaries and elastic fibers

Type II cells = cuboidal epithelial cells

Secrete fluid containing surfactant

Dust Cells (macrophages)

Gas exchange
Oxygen into blood Carbon Dioxide into alveoli

Throughout Bronchial Tree

Psuedostratified columnar changes to simple columnar to simple cuboidal Cartilage rings replaced by cartilage plates once bronchi enter the lungs Smooth muscle and Elastic fibers remain important In Bronchioles
Ciliated mucosa disappears, replaced by macrophages in alveoli Cartilage disappears Smooth muscle forms bands around smallest bronchi and bronchioles (not found around alveoli)

LUNGS (continued)
Located in Pleural Compartments Lateral to Mediastinum Location
Apex posterior to clavicle Base lays on Diaphragm Costal Surface = Ant, Lat, Post surfaces contact ribs

Left Lung = 2 lobes

Upper Lower Oblique Fissure Cardiac Notch

Right Lung = 3 lobes

Upper Middle Lower Oblique fissure Horizontal fissure

pg 168

Hilus- medial indentation Root of Lung = structures enter each lung
2 Pulmonary Veins = carries O2-rich blood from each lung to heart 1 Pulmonary Artery = carries O2-poor blood to each lung Primary Bronchus Nerve plexus Lymph Vessels pg 164

Lung Lobes
Lobes are anatomically + functionally separate Lung lobes divided into Lobules
Functionally separate Separated by dense CT Vary in size

Stroma = lung tissue

Areolar CT Many elastic fibers pg 178

Pharynx to Stomach Passes thru diaphragm at esophageal hiatus Anterior to vertebrae, Posterior to trachea

Layers of Esophagus (deep to superficial)

Stratified squamous epithelium Lamina propria (loose CT) Muscularis mucosae

Loose connective tissue Secretes mucus

Muscularis Externa
Circular/Longitudinal layers Skeletal m, Mix, then Smooth m

Fibrous CT

pg 212

The Diaphragm
Skeletal Muscle Dome-shaped (relaxed) Flattens (contracts) Divides thoracic & abdominopelvic cavities Attachments
O: Inferior Internal rib cage, Lumbar vertebrae (by crura) I: Central tendon pg 136

Innervated by right + left PHRENIC Nerves

Action of the Diaphragm

Primary muscle of respiration (involuntary)
Contraction during inspiration
Increases volume of thoracic cavity Decreases pressure of thoracic cavity Air moves into lungs (highlow pressure)

Forced contraction (voluntary)

Used for defecation, urination, labor
Decreases volume of abdominal cavity Increases pressure in abdominal cavity Pushes on abdominal organs to move contents out

pg 136

Thoracic Cavity Capacity is Increased by:

Contraction of diaphragm Intercostal muscles elevate ribs Rib elevation causes the sternum to move anteriorly

pg 135

Openings of Diaphragm
PosteriorAnterior Aortic Hiatus
Aorta Azygos vein Thoracic duct

Esophageal Hiatus
Esophagus Vagus nerves

Caval Opening
Inferior Vena Cava Right Phrenic Nerve pg 157

Vena Cava
Superior Vena Cava
in Superior mediastinum, right side Receives blood from regions above diaphragm Formed from Rt + Lft Brachiocephalic Veins cranially Azygos Vein empties into it just superior to heart Empties into Right Atrium

Inferior Vena Cava

in Inferior mediastinum (right side), runs through abdomen Returns blood to heart from regions below diaphragm Formed from Rt + Lft Common Iliac Veins Empties into Right Atrium Widest blood vessel in body

Veins of Thoracic Cavity

Vena Cavae Azygos Vein
unpaired right side of vertebral bodies (at level of T12) runs superiorly empties into Sup. Vena Cava drains right posterior intercostal veins Connects to hemiazygos and accessory hemiazygos that drain left side pg 153

Thymus Gland
Lymphatic Organ 2-lobed w/lobules Sits on heart and great vessels Immature lymphocytes mature into T-lymphocytes Secretes Thymic Hormones: help T-lymphocytes gain immunocompetence Decreases in size w/age
Functional tissue is replaced with fatty tissue

Contains lobes and lobules

pg 206
Capsule Cortex Medulla