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Network Basics

By Muhammad Arslan Farooq MBA-ITM (IIUI)

Contents
Computer Networks and their Uses Network Models Network Categories Network Topologies Networking Devices Network Standards

Computer Networks & Uses

Computer Networks
A network is a set of devices (often referred to as nodes) connected by communication links
A node can be a
computer Printer or any other device

Computer Networks;
A simple definition

A computer network is a set of two or more computers connected together in order to share information and resources
The computers in a network are also called nodes, clients, workstations or servers.

Uses/ Benefits of Computer Networks


Information sharing Resources sharing
Both hardware and software

Cost saving Easy communication


Video conferencing, Audio conferencing, Data conferencing

Easier data backups

Network Models

Networks Models
Networks can be categorized by the roles the servers and PCs play in Network Some networks use servers (ClientServer Models) and some do not (Peer-to-Peer Models)

1. Client/ Server Network


One or more computer work as servers and other computers work as clients. The server controls the whole network. Server is a more powerful computer than other computers in the network.

1. Client/ Server Network


continued..

The server used in the network may be a dedicated server


A type of server that is used to perform a specific task only e.g. A print server may be used only to handle printing tasks

Most of the processing is performed by the server computer

1. Client/ Server Network


continued..

The client computer requests a service from the server computer Server responds to the request by providing the requested service This arrangement requires special software for the nodes and the server This model is not Network type specific.
It can be used in LAN, WAN, MAN etc.

2. Peer-to-Peer Network
Each computer has same status There is no server computer to control the network Each computer stores its data and software independently normally deployed in LANs.

Network Categories

Network Categories
Into which category a network falls is determined by
its size ownership the distance it covers and physical architecture.

Generally a Network can be categorized in three Primary Types.


1. LAN 2. MAN 3. WAN

1. Local Area Network


Usually privately owned link the devices in a single office, building or campus. LAN size is limited to a few kilometers LANs can transmit data at very fast speed.
Data transmission speed can be 1 to 100 Mbps.

Uses of LANs
Software sharing Hardware sharing Easy to manage data Security as data can be stored on central computer in the network Data Sharing

2. Metropolitan Area Network


Designed to extend over an entire city It may be a single network
such as a cable television network.

Or it may be means of connecting a number of LANs into a larger network


e.g. A company can use a MAN to connect the LANs in all its office through a city.

2. Metropolitan Area Network


continued..

A MAN may be wholly owned and operated by a private company, or it may be a service provided by a public company,
such as local telephone company.

covers larger area then LAN but a small geographical area then WAN A MAN often acts as a high-speed network.

3. Wide Area Network


Provides longdistance transmission of
data, voice, image and video information

Covers large geographic areas that may comprise


a country, a continent, or even the whole world.

3. Wide Area Network continued..


A WAN can utilize public, leased, or private communication equipment. A WAN can span unlimited number of miles. Transmission speed of WAN is less then LAN.
Normally it can provide data transmission rate of 56kbps to 45Mbps.

The largest WAN in existence is the Internet.

Uses of WAN
Communication Facility Remote data entry Information sharing

Network Topologies

Network Topologies
The Term physical topology refers to the way in which a network is laid out physically The Physical layout or arrangement of connected devices in a network is called topology.
It is also called shape of a Network.

Four basic possible topologies are


1. 2. 3. 4. Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Mesh Topology

Bus Topology
It In Bus topology, all computers or network nodes are connected to a common communication medium.
This medium is often central wire known as bus. The terminators are used at the end of a bus to absorb signals.

Working of Bus Topology


The sending computer sends the data and destination address through the bus The data and address move from one computer to the other in the network Each computer checks the address
If it matches with the address of a computer, the computer keeps the data Other wise moves the data to the next computer.

Advantages and disadvantages of Bus Topology


Advantages:
Simple and easy to implement. Less expensive If one node fails it does not effect the rest of the network

Disadvantages
Difficult to troubleshoot Only supports small number of computers Increased number of nodes reduces the speed

2. Star Topology
All computers in star topology are connected with central device called hub Mostly used in client-server networks

Working of Star Topology


The sending computer sends the data to hub The hub sends data to the receiving computer Each computer in star network communicates with a central hub.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Star Topology


Advantages:
Easy to maintain and modify Troubleshooting is simple Single computer failure does not affect rest of the network

Disadvantages:
If central hub fails, the whole network is lost Expensive

3. Ring Topology
In Ring Topology, each computer connected to the next computer with the last connected to the first Thus a ring of computers is formed.

Working of Ring Topology


Each computer receives message from the previous computer and transmits it to the next computer The message flows in only one direction The message is passed around the ring until it reaches the correct destination computer.

Advantages and disadvantages of Ring Topology


Advantages:
Less expensive than star Every computer has equal status

Disadvantages:
Failure of one computer in the ring affect the whole network It is difficult to troubleshoot Difficult to modify the network

4. Mesh Topology
In a Mesh Topology, every device in the network is physically connected to every other device in the network A message can be sent on different possible paths form source to destination provides improved performance and reliability mostly used in WANs.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Mesh Topology


Advantages:
Dedicated links eliminate traffic problems If one link fails, the data traffic can be shifted to another link Easy to troubleshoot

Disadvantages:
Very Expensive Difficult to install Difficult to troubleshoot

Networking Devices

1. Bridge
A device that connects two network segments using similar protocol When a bridge receives a signal
it determines the segment where the signal should be sent It reads the addresses of sending and receiving computers If both computers are in the same segment, bridge does not pass the signal to the other segment.

It reduces network traffic and increases network performance.

2. Gateway
A device that connects two or more networks with different types of protocols Two different types of networks require a gateway to communicate with each other It receives data from one network and converts it according to the protocol of other network.

3. Router
A device that connects multiple networks that use similar or different protocols It manages the best route between any two communication networks It consists of hardware and software
The hardware can be a network server or a separate computer The software includes Operating system and routing protocol.

Network standards

Network standards
The standards are the documents that contain technical and physical specifications about the network being designed There are two types of network standard as follows:
1. De-Facto 2. De-Jure

1. De-Fact
De-Facto means by tradition or by facts These are the standards which were developed without any formal planning. These standards come into existence due to historical developments.

2. De-Jure
De-Jure means according to law or regulation These standards are developed with proper research to fulfill the requirement of data communication.

References
1. Data Communication and Networks by Behrouz A. Forouzan 2. Computer Applications in Business by Tasleem Mustafa 3. Introduction to Computers by Peter Norton

Thanks for your attention