Sunteți pe pagina 1din 20

AHS Community Health November 02, 2012

Occupation & Health


Dr. N Sivarajah Department of Community Meicine Faculty of Medicine, University of Jaffna

Occupational health is concerned with


the influence of Occupation on illness
Continuing in the job could affect his illness

Effect of illness on the occupation


Continuing to work in spite of the illness could affect his work and be a danger to the community

the application of preventive medicine in all places of employment


Dr. N Sivarajah 2

Historical aspect
Bernadino Ramazzini (1710), described as the Father of Occupational Health asked from all patients their past and present Occupational history Causation and progress of disease is related to a persons occupation

Dr. N Sivarajah

Occupational Health B 27

Aims of Occupational Health


The promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well being of workers in all occupations. The prevention among workers the departure from health caused by their working conditions The protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health The placing and maintenance of the worker in an occupational environment adapted to his physiological & psychological requirement
Dr. N Sivarajah
Occupational Health AHS 2012

Interactions in Occupational Environment


MACHINE

MAN

AGENT MANAGEMENT MAN

CO-WORKERS

Dr. N Sivarajah

Occupational Health B 27

Employed Population in Industry


Industry Percent

Agriculture, Hunting, Forestry, Fishing


Manufacturing Personal Services Wholesale &Retail trade, Restaurants & Hotels Others Total
Dr. N Sivarajah Occupational Health AHS 2012

45.8
12.0 13.7 10.4 18.1 100.0
6

Occupational Hazards
Physical Chemical Biological Mechanical Psychological Ionizing Radiation

Dr. N Sivarajah

Occupational Health AHS 2012

Physical hazards
Temperature
Hot & Cold

Light
Excess or poor - leads to eye strain & Headache

Noise
leads to deafness

Vibration
Use of vibrating tools small joints affected

Pressure
Decompression Illness in divers

UV Radiation
Sunlight, welding damage to eye, iritis
Dr. N Sivarajah Occupational Health B 27 8

Physical Hazards - Continued


Infrared radiation
hot bodies, radiant heat causes cataract of eyes

Injuries
Snake bites in agriculture Hand injury in coir industry Drowning in fisherman

Infections
STD among sex workers. Hepatitis B infection among nurses & doctors, snake bite, leptospirosis, worm infestation, tetanus among agricultural workers
Dr. N Sivarajah Occupational Health B 27 9

Chemical hazards
Usually target skin & lungs Chemical
Pesticides
Among sprayers

Other chemicals

Dr. N Sivarajah

Occupational Health B 27

10

Pesticide Poisoning
Common in Agricultural districts. Exposure occurs during
Formulation Packaging Storage Delivery Preparation & application

Route of absorption is usually


Skin Inhalation injestion
Dr. N Sivarajah Occupational Health AHS 2012 11

Mechanical hazards
Musculo-skeletal problems related to working position Head injuries in factories

Dr. N Sivarajah

Occupational Health B 27

12

Psychological hazards
Usually seen in shift workers especially on night duty Chronic headaches

Dr. N Sivarajah

Occupational Health B 27

13

Ionizing Radiation
Could be
Electromagnetic radiation X-rays, gamma rays Corpuscular radiation electrons, protons, neutrons

Radiation affects Acute usually in war (Hiroshima)


Somatic effects- Bone marrow depression Genetic effects Stillbirths, deaths, Childhood cancers (Eg: Hiroshima)

Radiation affects -Chronic


Somatic effects loss of hair, Cancer of skin, lung, bone Genetic effects
Dr. N Sivarajah Occupational Health B 27 14

Mode of entry of toxic material or poisons


1. By inhalation
Dusts, fumes, smoke, vapors, gases, etc

2. Skin contact and absorption through skin 3. Ingestion

Dr. N Sivarajah

Occupational Health B 27

15

General Preventive methods


Substitution with less toxic material Segregating the process & locally exhausting Providing protective equipment to workers

Dr. N Sivarajah

Occupational Health B 27

16

Prevention of Occupational hazards


Selection- Machine and man Substitution eg. The offending article Protection
machine man

Regular inspection
Machine Man pre-placement, periodic

Cleanliness
Person Place
Dr. N Sivarajah Occupational Health B 27 17

Prevention of Occupational hazards (contd)


Education
Worker Management

Legislation
Notification Safety measures Welfare

Dr. N Sivarajah

Occupational Health B 27

18

References
Rohini de Alwis Seneviratne, HMSSD Herath, Dulitha N Fernando, Kantha N Lankatilake (Ed.) Occupational health: A handbook for doctors. Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo. 1998. Herath HMSSD (Ed) Occupational Health: an introductory course for health workers. Colombo. Ministry of health.1990 Encyclopaedia of Health and Safety. 3rd Edition. ILO Geneva. 1991
Dr. N Sivarajah Occupational Health AHS 2012 19

Dr. N Sivarajah

Occupational Health B 27

20