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By: Austin Curran, Randy Licata, Chris Wendt, and Dakota Heaney

a) Depending on the test subject, a variety of techniques can be performed in order to extract an individuals genetic information. b) Genetic testing involves obtaining informed consent from individuals, and it can be performed by a medical geneticist, a genetic counselor, or a primary care doctor.

c) Genetic testing on newborns and fetuses.


Genetic screening on newborns involves taking a blood sample from the childs heel with a lancet. Screening done on newborns and fetuses are usually for preventative measures. Tests have clear benefits because there is usually a treatment available.

d) Genetic screening on developed humans (older than newborns).


Genetic tests are preformed on a hair, blood, amniotic fluid, or tissue sample. A Buccal smear involves the use of a small brush to collect a sample of cells from within the cheek. Then, the sample is sent out to a lab for screening, where technicians look for protein or DNA changes in chromosomes (depending or the disorder that is suspected).

a) Genetic screening can be used for various different purposes.


The main purposes of genetic screening are:
Disease diagnosis Forensic/identity testing Newborn screening Genealogical DNA test

b) Disease diagnosis.
The first genetic screening ever done was used to determine if newborns had a metabolic disease called PKU. Genetic screening can be used for disease diagnosis.
To confirm the diagnosis in patients with symptoms. To advise other family members of the diagnosed patient whether or not they also have the disease. To advise if the partner of the patient has the disease and/or if the children of the couple will be a carrier of the disease.

c) Diseases/disorders that could be tested through genetic testing.


Sickle Cell anemia Cystic Fibrosis Downs Syndrome Fragile X Syndrome Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

a) Genetic discrimination: discrimination against people who possess inferior genes.


Insurance companies and employers could determine insurance rates and employment based on genetics.
ex) A company could deny employment to an individual if the individuals genetics imply vulnerability to disease and/or workplace incompetence.

Genetic determinism: belief that human characteristics and actions are mostly a result of genes. Eugenics: advocates the improvement of human hereditary traits by promoting reproduction between people with more desired traits, while discouraging reproduction between people with undesired traits.

b) Deviant reproductive decisions.


Information about a fetuss genetics may have controversial ramifications involving human reproductions. Many people morally object to interference with human reproduction, especially devout religious people. Abortion may become more common due to potential genetic discrimination against fetuses. Eugenics
ex) If a fetus possesses a genetic defect such as Downs Syndrome, it mother may feel obliged to abort the fetus.

c) Genetic determinism: the belief that human characteristics and actions are mostly determined by genetics.
Could further support genetic discrimination by establishing a genetic underclass. This could potentially lead to bigotry and racism.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_testing http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/testing/procedure http://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/~mcclean/plsc431/stud ents98/christenson.htm http://www.woodrow.org/teachers/bi/1992/gen_scree n1.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugenics http://www.lbl.gov/Education/ELSI/genetictesting.html