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DEVELOPMENT

GROWTH AND

GROWTH

Refers generally to the physical growth, i.e. Growth from the fertilized egg at the time of conception to the fully grown body of the adult. It means increase in the size of the various parts of the body

According to Hurlock
GROWTH is change in size, in proportion, disappearance of old features and acquisition of new ones. e.g.: Height, Weight, Disappearance of temporary teeth and Acquisition of Permanent teeth

According to Crow and Crow(1962)

Growth refers to structural and physiological changes

DEVELOPMENT
It refers to the progressive changes that take place with time in the behavior of the organism.

According to Hurlock(1959)
Development means a progressive series of changes that occur in an orderly predictable pattern as a result of maturation and experience.

According to Crow and Crow (1962)


Development is concerned with growth as well as those changes in behavior which results from environmental situations.

According to J.E. Anderson(1950)


Development does not consist merely of adding inches to ones height or improving ones ability. Instead development is a complex process of integrating many structures and functions.

According to Liebert, Poulos and Marmor (1979)


Development refers to a process of change in growth and capability over time, as function of both maturation and interaction with the environment. Thus, development includes Growth Capability Maturation Interaction with the environment

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT


GROWTH

The term is used in purely physical sense. It generally refers to increase in size, length. Changes in the quantitative aspects come into the domain of Growth.

DEVELOPMENT Development implies overall change in shape, form or structure resulting in improved working or functioning. Changes in the quality or character rather than the quantitative aspects comes in this domain.

GROWTH

DEVELOPMENT

It is a part of developmental process. Development in its quantitative aspect is termed as growth. Growth does not continue throughout life. It stops when maturity has been attained. Growth involves body changes.

It is a comprehensive and wider term and refers to overall changes in the individual. Development is a wider and comprehensive term and refers to overall changes in the individual. It continues throughout life and is progressive. Development involves changes of an orderly, coherent type tending towards the goal of maturity.

GROWTH
The changes produced by growth are the subject of measurement. They may be quantified.

DEVELOPMENT
Development implies improvement in functioning and behavior and hence bring qualitative changes which are difficult to be measured directly. They are assessed through keen observation in behavioral situations. Development is organizational. It is organization of all the parts which growth and differentiation have produced.

Growth is cellular . It takes place due to the multiplication of cells.

GROWTH
Growth may or may not bring development. E.g.: A child may grow fat but by becoming fat no functional improvement may take place.

DEVELOPMENT
Development is also possible without growth. E.g.: A child may not gain height, weight or size but can have functional improvement in other aspects .

PRINCIPLES OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT


Development is a continuous process (from birth to death)

Development follows a direction and uniform pattern (orderly manner)


Cephalo-caudal from head to tail

Proximo-distalfrom nearer to far apart

LocomotionSequence of development is followed.

Development proceeds from general to specific responsesReacts to the stimuli with the whole body and gradually learns to give specific responses.

PRINCIPLE OF HIERARCHICAL INTEGRATION states that simple skills typically develop separately and independently but are later integrated into more complex skills. Development lacks uniformity of rate There are periods of acceleration and periods of decelerated growth. Different body systems mature at different rates.

PRINCIPLE OF INDEPENDENCE OF SYSTEMS suggests that different body systems grow at different rates. For instance, the nervous system is highly developed during infancy.

Most traits of development are correlatede.g.: a child whose intellectual development is above average, is also superior in many other aspects.

Development is a product of contribution of Heredity and EnvironmentIt is not possible to indicate exactly in what proportion heredity and environment contribute to the development of an individual.

Development is both qualitative and quantitativeWhile growth takes place, the functional organization of the individual also improves.

There are wide individual differences


in growth pattern i.e. development is uniqueIndividuals differ from each other in their pattern and rate of growth.

Development is cumulative- Each change is the culmination of prior growth and experience. Development is a result of interaction of Maturation and Learning- Maturation refers to changes in a developmental organism due to the unfolding and ripening of abilities, characteristics, traits and potentialities present at birth. Learning denotes the changes in behavior due to training or experience.

Development is predictable- The rate of development of each child at an early stage helps in predicting the developments at a later stage. Development is spiral and non-linear- It is in the form of a cork-screw.

Domains of children's development are closely related to each other


Physical Language Aesthetic Cognitive Emotional Social

Development in one domain influences and is influenced by development in other domains.

Domains of children's development are closely related to each other


Physical Language Aesthetic Cognitive Emotional Social

Development in one domain influences and is influenced by development in other domains.

Development occurs in a relatively orderly sequence


with later abilities, skills, and knowledge building on those already acquired.

Development proceeds at varying rates


from child to child as well as unevenly within different areas of each child's functioning.

Aspects of Human Development


1. Physical development - changes in the body structure and motor skills. 2. Perceptual development - development of sensory capacities such as the changes in the seeing and hearing abilities of infants.

Aspects of Human Development


3. Cognitive or Intellectual development - change in mental abilities, learning capacity, memory, reasoning thought processes and language.
4. Personality and Social development - changes in self-concept, gender identity and ones quality of interpersonal relationship.

8 Stages of Development
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Prenatal stage Infancy (0-2 years old) Early childhood (3-6 years old) Middle childhood (7-12 years old) Adolescence (13-19 years old) Young adulthood (20-35 years old) Middle adulthood (36-49 years old) Late adulthood/Old age (50 years old-Death)

Infancy:
It is a state refers to first 3 years of life. It is a period of maturity (both physically and mentally) and complete dependence. At birth, mostly male baby are heavier than female.

Characteristics of Infancy:
Various Dimensions of Development are: Physical Development: Very rapid (weight become almost double in 4 months and height increases by 10 inches upto 2nd year) Child derives pleasure from his own body (sucking thumb) Head and facial skeleton is more developed than other body part Trunk is very heavy during this period Heart beat is irregular Food take longer time to reach intestine

infancy

Nervous System: rapid growth of brain and its size and weight increases Nerve cells attain maturity Improvement in the functioning of sensory organ Motor Development: Co-ordination and control of body movements. Starts grasping things and objects Starts sitting, crawling by the end of 4 months and starts walking with support by the end of 8-9 months. Walking starts by one-two years.

infancy

Language development: Starts vocalization in form of cries or explosive sound to express in early stages He utters some words in six to seven months like mama, papa (some may be meaningful and some may be meaningless) Language development properly begins in the beginning of second year and begins to speak properly but short sentences.

infancy

Intellectual Development: Capacity to grasp new word depends on rote memory He lacks abstract learning (limited to concrete things) Sign of creativity is seen by end of two tears. Infant engages in collecting new articles Period to make beliefs. He believes whatever is told to him. Infant perceives an unfamiliar object as a form of figure

infancy

Social Development He learns social skills in the company of his parents and other family members. He learns how to respond on a particular situation. By end of two year he take notice of other infants and plays with them He depends on family for his all social needs ( like love, interpersonal relationship, adaptability etc) He become aware of people around him and starts responding accordingly First month: Understand human and other voices Second month: Recognizes human voices and greets with smile or cry Third month: Recognizes mother and father Forth Month: Recognizes other human faces Fifth month: Recognize tone of voice (love or hate) 6-7 months: welcome known person with smile 8-9 months: Plays with his own shadow 24 months: Participates in elders talks

infancy

Emotional Development: He is egocentric and selfish (he dont want to share things) He cries and become irritated if he is chided. Emotions are intense, frequent and unstable He cannot hide his feelings Emotions of anger fear, disgust, elation and love are seen. (mostly at the time of eating, wakeup after sleeping etc.)

Childhood
The Childhood is divided into two parts viz. Pre- Childhood: 3-6 years Early Childhood: 6-9 years and Late Childhood: 9-12 years
Childhood: The Childhood starts just after the stage of Infancy. This is a very crucial stage where a child takes a better pace in physical, mental, social, intellectual, motor and language development. Childhood is a stage when child start depending on himself. The formal education of a child starts at this stage.

Characteristics of Early Childhood


Physical and Motor Development He acquires many motor skills like catching, throwing, running, jumping riding a tricycle. Growth in Height and body weight, formation of muscles Growth of legs is very rapid Rate of blood pressure increases and the heart beat slows down Self feeding, play with toys, using pencils for writing and sketching Involvement in games and other motor activities have started

Early Childhood

Intellectual Development
Perceptual development begins from mass movement The child perceives those things which are concerned with his mental set and interest Child begins to explore and acquire new experiences Child starts perceiving clear shape, size, colour, distance Span of attention increases

Language Development: The child has mastery over four major task
1.Comprehension of the speech 2.Building Vocabulary 3.Using and combining words into sentences 4.Pronouncing the words clearly

Development of Language is not uniform

Early Childhood

Social Development: Feeling of autonomy. They starts to explore and manipulate their environment independently Child became frustrated if he does not find homely environment Child starts making friends. He learns cooperation, sympathy, quarreling teasing etc at this stage Child want to dominates among his peers and other people Negativism increases in this age

Early Childhood

Emotional Development: Emotional swings are very rapid at this age (starts weeping at one situation and starts laughing at another situation) Emotions of a child are intense irrespective of the intensity of the stimulus. Child cannot hide their emotion and thus express them by different activities like crying, throwing objects and laughing etc Development of deep sentiments of affection for his parents Child starts to show moodiness.

Characteristics Late Childhood

Physical Development Slow and steady uniform growth in external as well internal organs are seen. Milk teeth are replaced by permanent set. Refinement in motor skills Rapid increase in height and weight Change in shape of mouth as new teeth grow Muscular development is seen

Late Childhood

Intellectual Development Development of power of observation, reasoning and abstract thinking Child can derive information and pleasure from book Child can apply Mental power, perceptual ability. IQ increases slowly and steadily Boys love adventurous tales and girls love mind form of romance and biographies Courage and loyalty increases A child starts day dreaming Child learns conceptual problems and their solutions Child starts admiring things and people around him

Late Childhood

Emotional Development Rapid shift from one type of emotion to another is seen and child learns how to control his emotions in various social situations Emotional responses become less diffused Fear of animals, ghosts loneliness etc that were dominated in early childhood disappears in this stage Angriness and jealousy with more preferred children grows Control on joy, love, grief affection etc is shown in this stage Complex of superiority or inferiority develops Indifferent attitude among children of opposite sex

Late Childhood

Social Development Loves to play with peers and shares his belongings with them Better time of developing team spirit and sportsmanship Social horizon of child increases (markets, zoos, Shopping malls, Children clubs, parks etc) Leadership quality grows rapidly Starts accepting social norms Child indulges in fights with peer if found them wrong Sex indifference become sharp Some delinquent acts like bullying, stealing become prominent

Late Childhood

Language Development Child can easily express his views in his Mother tongue Starts speaking clear and meaningful sentences Moral Development Capacity to understand relationship develops rapidly Child accepts lawful and unlawful matter Starts respecting and obeying his teachers and parents Development of right and wrong concepts

Educational Implications
Need of paying attention to individual differences of the learners. Avoid comparing the child with others. Undue pressure should not be put on the students. Adapting learning programmes, procedures and practices according to the level of students.

Need of motivating the child to learn as development is a continuous process. Need for correlating different subjects and examples to daily life. Need for a pragmatic outlook so as to not place undue demands on the child. Practice maxims of teaching like proceed from known to unknown, concrete to abstract, simple to complex Use psychological methods of teaching.

The learning experiences should be arranged suitably according to the maturity of the child. The learning processes, experiences and environment should be arranged according to the level and needs of the students. A good environment should be provided to the students, as it plays an important role in the development of the child.

Factors affecting growth and development:


Hereditary Environmental factors Pre-natal environment 1-Factors related to mothers during pregnancy:
- Nutritional deficiencies - Diabetic mother - Exposure to radiation - Infection with German measles - Smoking - Use of drugs

Stages of Growth and Development


Prenatal
- Embryonic (conception- 8 w) - Fetal stage (8-40 or 42 w)

Middle Childhood
- School age - 6 to 12 years

Infancy - Neonate
- Birth to end of 1 month

- Infancy
- 1 month to end of 1 year

Late Childhood
- Adolescent - 13 years to approximately 18 years

Early Childhood - Toddler


- 1-3 years

- Preschool
- 3-6 years