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# GRID

Technical Institute
This document is the exclusive property of Alstom Grid and shall not be
transmitted by any means, copied, reproduced or modified without the prior
Distance Protection
Distance Protection - P 2
Distance Protection
Popular, widely used on Sub-Transmission and Transmission
Systems
Virtually independent of Fault Current Level (Z
S
/Z
L
ratios)
Fast Discriminative Protection:- Zone 1 or Aided Distance Scheme
Time Delayed Remote Back-Up
Distance Protection - P 3
Measures Z, X or R correctly irrespective of System
Conditions

Compare this with Instantaneous Overcurrent Protection:-

Distance Protection - P 4
F
1

115kV 50
I
F1

Z
S
= 10 O
Z
S
= 10 O
Z
L
= 4 O
I
F1
= 115kV/\3(5+4) = 7380A
I
s
> 7380A

Distance Protection - P 5
Consider with one source out of service:-

I
F2
= 115kV/\3 x 10 = 6640A
I
s
<6640A
>7380A - IMPRACTICAL

F
2

50
I
F2

Z
S
= 10 O
Distance Protection - P 6
Simplified Line Diagram
X

L

= jL

X

C

=

-j

C
at F
N
(50Hz) X
C
= large :-
L

R

R

R

R

L

L

L

C

C

C

R

L

Distance Protection - P 7
Basic Principle of Distance Protection
Z
L

Z
S

Generation
Distance
Relay
I
R

21
V
R

Distance Protection - P 8
Impedance Seen By Measuring Element
jX
Z
L

R
Distance Protection - P 9
Basic Principle of Distance Protection
R
R
R
Z Z
V
Z measured Impedance + =
I
=
Relay
PT.
Normal
I
R

Z
L

Z
S

V
R

V
S

Z

Distance Protection - P 10
Basic Principle of Distance Protection
Ppp
Ppp
Ppp

Fault
I
R

Z
S

V
R
V
S

Z

Z
L

Z
F

Impedance Measured Z
R
= V
R
/I
R
= Z
F
Relay Operates if Z
F
< Z where Z = setting
Increasing V
R
has a Restraining Effect V
R
called
Restraining Voltage
Increasing I
R
has an Operating Effect
Distance Protection - P 11
Plain Impedance Characteristic
jX
Z
L

R
TRIP STABLE
Impedance Seen At
Measuring Location For
Line Faults
Distance Protection - P 12
Impedance Characteristic Generation
Operate
I
F

V
F

Restrain
Spring
Trip
z
F

Ampere Turns :

V
F
IZ
Trip Conditions : V
F
< I
F
Z
jIX
IZ
V
1

V
2

V
3

IR
TRIP

STABLE
Voltage to Relay = V
Current to Relay = I
Replica Impedance = Z
Trip Condition : S2 < S1
where : S1 = IZ ~ Z
S2 = V ~ Z
F

Distance Protection - P 13
Basic Principle of Distance Protection
Relays are calibrated in secondary ohms :-

RATIO V.T.
RATIO C.T.
x Z Z
/V V
/
x
V

/ x
/V V x V
/ V Z
P R
2 1
2 1
FP
FP
1 2 FP
1 2 FP
R R R
=
I I
I
=
I I I
= I =

I
R

21
V
R

I
1
/I
2
Z
P

V
1

V
2

V
FP

Distance Protection - P 14
Example
Z
P
= 4O; V
1
/V
2
= 115kV/115V; I
1
/I
2
= 600/5A

Z
R(5)
= 4 x (600/5) / (115x10
3
/115) = 0.48O - 5A Relay
Z
R(1)
= 2.4 O - 1A Relay
C.T. RATIO
Z
R
= Z
P
x
V.T. RATIO
Distance Protection - P 15
Input Quantities for C-C Faults
FAULT V
RESTRAINT
I
OPERATE

A - B V
A
- V
B
I
A
- I
B

B - C V
B
- V
C
I
B
- I
C

C - A V
C
- V
A
I
C
- I
A

V
RESTRAINT
& I
OPERATE
are selected inside the relay
No setting adjustments are required apart from
Z
1
= Phase Replica Impedance
Distance Protection - P 16
Input Quantities for C-C Faults (1)
V
R1
= E - I
1
Z
S1
= 2I
1
{Z
S1
+ Z
L1
} - I
1
Z
S1

= I
1
Z
S1
+ 2I
1
Z
L1
V
R2
= - I
2
Z
S2
= I
1
Z
S1

V
RB
= a
2
V
R1
+ aV
R2
= a
2
{2I
1
Z
L1
+ I
1
Z
S1
} + aI
1
Zs
1
V
RC
= aV
R1
+ a
2
V
R2
= a{2I
1
Z
L1
+ I
1
Z
S1
} + a
2
I
1
Z
S1

I
RB
= a
2
I
1
aI
1
= (a
2
a)I
1
I
RC
= aI
1
a
2
I
1
= (a a
2
)I
1
Z
S1
I
1

I
2

F
1

N
1

F
2

N
2

Z
L1
Z
S2
Z
L2
I
R1

I
R2

v
R2

v
R1

E

Distance Protection - P 17
Consider a B-C Fault
V
R1
= E - I
1
Z
S1
= 2I
1
{Z
S1
+ Z
L1
} - I
1
Z
S1

= I
1
Z
S1
+ 2I
1
Z
L1

V
R2
= -I
2
Z
S2
= I
1
Z
S1

V
RB
= a
2
V
R1
+ aV
R2
= a
2
{2I
1
Z
L1
+ I
1
Z
S1
}
+ aI
1
Z
S1

V
RC
= aV
R1
+ a
2
V
R2
= a{2I
1
Z
L1
+ I
1
Z
S1
}
+ a
2
I
1
Z
S1

I
RB
= a
2
I
1
- aI
1
= (a
2
-a)I
1

I
RC
= aI
1
- a
2
I
1
= (a-a
2
)I
1

Z
L1
Z
S1

E
I
1

F
1

Z
L1
Z
S1

I
R1

V
R1

N
1

I
2

F
2

Z
L2
Z
S2

I
R2

V
R2

N
2

Distance Protection - P 18
Using V
RB
& I
RB
to Obtain Z
RB
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
S1 L1 S1 L1
S1
2
2
L1
2
2
1
2
S1 1
2
L1 1
2
RB
RB
RB
Z . 90
3
1
Z . 30
3
2
Z .
90 3
180 1
Z .
90 3
240 1 . 2

Z .

a a
a a
Z .

a a
2a

I

a a
Z I a a Z 2I a

I
V
Z
Z + Z =
Z
Z
+
Z
Z
=
+
+
+

=

+ +
= =

Relay Will Not Measure The Same Impedance Under
All Conditions If V
C/N
And I
C
Are Used

Z
S1
Is a Variable Factor

Distance Protection - P 19
Correct Measurement for B-C Fault
by Using V
B
V
C
& I
B
-I
C
V
B
-V
C
= (a
2
-a) . (2I
1
Z
L1
+ I
1
Z
S1
) + (a-a
2
)I
1
Z
S1
I
B
- I
C
= 2(a
2
- a)I
1

Z
RB
= (V
B
-V
C
)/ (I
B
- I
C
) = Z
L1
+ Z
S1
/2 - Z
S1
/2
= Z
L1

The relay can be calibrated in terms of the positive
sequence impedance of the protected line.
Distance relays are designed to use V
BC
& I
BC
and will
automatically take them from the connected 3C
voltages and currents.
Distance Protection - P 20
Input Quantities for Phase to Earth Faults
FAULT V
RESTRAINT
I
OPERATE

A - E V
A
? I
A
?

B - E

C - E

Distance Protection - P 21
Neutral Impedance Replica Vectorial Compensation
Replica impedance circuit :-
Z
1

I
RA

I
RN

IZN
Z
1

N
Z
1

Z
N

Z
1
= Phase replica impedance
Z
N
= Neutral replica impedance
I
RA
passes through Z
1
I
RN
passes through Z
N

Z
T
= Z
1
+ Z
N

Distance Protection - P 22
Neutral Impedance Compensation
For a single phase to ground fault the total earth loop
impedance is given by :- (Z
1
+ Z
2
+ Z
0
)/3 = Z
T

Z
T
= (Z
1
+ Z
2
+ Z
0
)/3 = Z
1
+ Z
N
Z
N
= (Z
1
+ Z
2
+ Z
0
)/3 - Z
1
= (2Z
1
+ Z
0
)/3 - Z
1

= - Z
1
+ Z
0

= K
N
Z
1

3 3
where K
N
= (Z
0
- Z
1
)
3Z
1

Distance Protection - P 23
Neutral Impedance Vectorial Replica Compensation
Line CTs
A
Z
PH

B
C
I
A
Z
PH

Z
PH

I
B
Z
PH

Z
PH

I
C
Z
PH

Z
N

I
N
Z
N

Set Z
PH
= Z
F1
Set Z
N
= (Z
F0
- Z
F1
)
3
Usually Z

Z
N
= Z

Z
PH
for OHLs
Distance Protection - P 24
Neutral Impedance Replica Compensation
For cables ZZ
0
= ZZ
1

VECTORIAL COMPENSATION MUST BE USED

K
N
= Z
0
- Z
1
= |K
N
| ZC
N

3Z
1

Distance Protection - P 25
Neutral Impedance Replica Vectorial Compensation
Vectorial compensation allows for ZZ
N
= ZZ
PH
which is
especially important for cable distance protection where
ZZ
N
< ZZ
PH
and ZZ
N
is sometimes negative.

Z
E
= Earth-loop impedance
for C - earth fault on a
cable
jX
R
Z
E

Z
PH

Z
N

GRID
Technical Institute
This document is the exclusive property of Alstom Grid and shall not be
transmitted by any means, copied, reproduced or modified without the prior
Characteristics
Distance Protection - P 27
Distance Characteristics
MHO
R
Z
n

jX
jX
R
Z
s

Z
n

CROSS-
POLARISED
MHO
Z
n

R
OFFSET
MHO
jX
Z
n

Z
n

R
IMPEDANCE
jX
Z
n

R
LENTICULAR
jX
Z
n

R
POLYGON
Z
n

R
Distance Protection - P 28
Self Polarised Mho Relays
Very popular characteristic
Simple
Less sensitive to power swings
Inherently directional
Operates for F
1
, but not for F
2

Mho = 1/OHM
Settings :-
Z = reach setting
= characteristic angle
jX
R
F
2

F
1

Z

OPERATE
RESTRAIN
Distance Protection - P 29
Offset Mho Characteristic
Normally used as backup
protection
Operates for zero faults
(close up faults)
Generally time delayed (as
not discriminative)
jX
R
Z
-Z
Distance Protection - P 30
Mho Relays
Directional circular characteristic obtained by introducing V
POLARISING

V
F
self polarised
V
SOUND PHASE
fully cross-polarised
V
F
+ xV
S.F.
partially cross-polarised
V
PRE-FAULT
memory polarised

Purpose for this is to ensure operation for close up faults where
measured fault voltage collapses

Distance Protection - P 31
Z
jX
Z
R
R
R
L
1
F
S
Distance Protection - P 32
jIX
IR
b
a
Lenticular characteristic
created from two offset
Mho comparators

Aspect ratio = a/b
Distance Protection - P 33
Lenticular Characteristic
X
R
a
b
Z3
Aspect ratios a/b
0.41
0.67
1.00
area
Z3 reverse
Distance Protection - P 34
Forward Offset Characteristic
Z3
Z2
Z1
Rf
X
R
Forward blinder
Enhanced resistive coverage for remote faults
GRID
Technical Institute
This document is the exclusive property of Alstom Grid and shall not be
transmitted by any means, copied, reproduced or modified without the prior
Zones of Protection
Distance Protection - P 36
Z2A
Z2C
Z3A
Z3C
Time
T3
T2
Z1C Z1A
Z1B
D C A
Z2B
T2
Z1A = 80% of Z
AB
(inst.)
Z2A = 120% of Z
AB
(~300ms)
Z3A
(FORWARD)
= 120% of {Z
AB
+ Z
CD
} (~600ms)
Z3A
(REVERSE)
= 10-25% of Z
AB
B
Zones of Protection
Distance Protection - P 37
R
A
D
C
B
Z1A
Z2A
Z3A
jX
Zones of Protection
Distance Protection - P 38
FAST OPERATION
Trips circuit breaker without delay as soon as
fault within Zone 1 reach is detected.
REACH SETTING
Cannot be set to 100% of protected line or may
overreach into next section.
Overreach caused by possible errors in :-
CTs
VTs
Z
LINE
information
Relay Measurement
Zone 1
Distance Protection - P 39
Possible
Overreach
ZONE 1 = Z
L

Z
L

F
ZONE 1 = 0.8Z
L

Z
L

Possible incorrect tripping for fault at F

Zone 1 set to ~ 0.8Z
L
Zone 1
Distance Protection - P 40
Z1C = 0.8Z
AC

A
C
Z1A = 0.8Z
AB

Z1B = 0.8Z
BA

B
Z1C
Z1A
Z1B
Zone 1 Settings for Teed Feeders
Distance Protection - P 41
Z1A
Trip B
Z1B
Z1B
Z1A
Z
L

A
B
Zone 1 Settings for Direct Intertrip Schemes
Distance Protection - P 42
Zone 1 Settings for Direct Intertrip Schemes
Effective Zone 1 reaches at A and B must overlap.
Otherwise :- No trip for fault at F

Effective Z1A and Z1B must be > 0.5Z
L

Settings for Zone 1 > 0.8Z
L
are o.k.

Z1B
Z1A
F
A
B
Distance Protection - P 43
Minimum Zone 1 Reach Setting
Dictated by :-

Minimum relay voltage for fault at Zone 1
reach point to ensure accurate measurement.

Minimum voltage depends on relay design typically 1 3 volts.
Distance Protection - P 44
SIR = Z
S
/Z
n

where :- Z
S
= Source impedance behind relay
Z
n
= Reach setting

V
RPA
= Minimum voltage for reach point accuracy

Can be expressed in terms of an equivalent value
of SIR
MAX

SIR
MAX
= Z
S MAX

Z
n MIN

Z
n MIN
Z
S MAX
SIR
MAX

System Impedance Ratio :- SIR
Distance Protection - P 45
Covers last 20% of line not covered by Zone 1.
Provides back-up protection for remote busbars.

To allow for errors :-
Z2G > 1.2 Z
GH

Zone 2 is time delayed to discriminate with Zone 1 on next
section for faults in first 20% of next section.
Z1H
Z2G
TIME
Z1G
G H
F
Zone 2
Distance Protection - P 46
Overlap only occurs for faults in first 20% of following line.
Faults at F should result in operation of Z1H and tripping of circuit breaker H.
If H fails to trip possible causes are :-
Z1H operates but trip relays fail.
Z2H may operate but will not trip if followed by the same trip relays.
Z1H and trip relays operate but circuit breaker fails to trip.
Fault must be cleared at G by Z2G.
with each other
Z1G Z1H
Z2G
Z2H
H
G
F
Zone 2
Distance Protection - P 47

Unless Z2H + trip relays energise a 2nd circuit breaker trip
coil.
Zone 2
Distance Protection - P 48
Z1H fails to operate.

Results in race between breakers G and H if Z2H and Z2G
have the same time setting.

Can only be overcome by time grading Z2G with Z2H.

Problem with this :-
Zone 2 time delays near source on systems with several line
sections will be large.
End zone faults on lines nearest the infeed source point will be
cleared very slowly.
Z1G Z1H
Z2G
Z2H
H G
Zone 2
Distance Protection - P 49
Z2A must not reach beyond Z1B

i.e. Z2A
(EFF)
MAX must not reach further than Z1B
(EFF)
MIN

Z1B
SETTING
= 0.8Z
L2

Z1B
(EFF)
MIN = 0.8 x 0.8Z
L2
= 0.64Z
L2

Z2A
(EFF)
MAX < Z
L1
+ 0.64Z
L2

1.2 Z2A
SETTING
< Z
L1
+ 0.64Z
L2

Z2A
SETTING
< 0.83Z
L1
+ 0.53Z
L2

Z2A
(EFF)
MAX
Z1B
(EFF)
MIN
Z
L2
Z
L1

B A
Maximum Allowable Zone 2 Reach to Allow for
Equal Zone 2 Time Settings
Distance Protection - P 50
Z3H
Z2G
Z3J
Z2H
Z2J
Z1H Z1J
Z1G
H
J
G
F
Z2G reaches into 3rd line section.

To limit remote back-up clearance for a fault at F, the time
setting of Z2G must discriminate with Z3H.
Zone 2 Time Settings on Long Line Followed by
Several Short Lines
Distance Protection - P 51
H
G
K
Z1G Z1H
Z2G
Z3G
REV
Z3G FWD
Time
Typical settings : Z3FWD > 1.2 x (Z
GH
+ Z
HK
)
Z3REV 0.1 to 0.25 of Z1G
Zone 3
Provides back-up for next adjacent line.
Provides back-up protection for busbars (reverse offset).
Actual Zone 3 settings will be scheme specified, i.e. permissive or
blocking schemes.
Many modern relays have more than 3 Zones to allow the use of three
forward and an independent reverse zone.

Distance Protection - P 52
Zone 1 :- tZ1 = instantaneous (typically 15 - 35mS)

Zone 2 :- tZ2 = tZ1(down) + CB(down) + Z2(reset) + Margin
e.g. tZ2 = 35 + 100 + 40 + 100 = 275mS

Zone 3 :- tZ3 = tZ2(down) + CB(down) + Z3(reset) + Margin
e.g. tZ3 = 275 + 100 + 40 + 100 = 515mS
Note: Where upper and lower zones overlap, e.g. Zone 2 up
sees beyond Zone 1 down, the upper and lower zone
time delays will need to be coordinated, e.g. tZ2(up) to
exceed tZ2(down).
Zone Time Coordination - Ideal Situation
GRID
Technical Institute
This document is the exclusive property of Alstom Grid and shall not be
transmitted by any means, copied, reproduced or modified without the prior
Under / Overreach
Distance Protection - P 54
Impedance presented > apparent impedance

%age Underreach = Z
R
- Z
F
x 100%
Z
R

where Z
R
= Reach setting
Z
F
= Effective reach
Under-Reach
Distance Protection - P 55
I
A
I
A
+I
B

Relay Location
I
B

Z
A
Z
B

V
R
= I
A
Z
A
+ (I
A
+ I
B
) Z
B

I
R
= I
A

Z
R
= Z
A
+ Z
B
+ I
B
. Z
B

I
A
Underreaching Due to Busbar Infeed between
Relay and Fault
Distance Protection - P 56
Relay with setting Z
A
+ Z
B
will underreach with
infeed.

Relay with setting Z
A
+ Z
B
+ I
B
. Z
B
will measure
I
A

correctly with infeed present but if infeed is removed the
relay will overreach.

Maximum allowable setting dictated by load impedance

Underreaching Due to Busbar Infeed between
Relay and Fault
Distance Protection - P 57
I
P

What relay reach setting is required to ensure fault at F is at
boundary of operation ?

Impedance seen for fault at F
= Z
G
+ I
G
+ I
P
. Z
K

I
G
Limit of operation is when Impedance Seen = Reach Setting
Reach setting required
= Z
G
+ I
G
+ I
P
. Z
K

I
G
Z
K

F
I
G
+I
P

Z
G

I
G

RELAY
Under-Reach
Distance Protection - P 58
Impedance seen < apparent impedance

%age Overreach = Z
F
- Z
R
x 100%
Z
R

where Z
R
= Reach setting
Z
F
= Effective reach
Over-Reach
GRID
Technical Institute
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transmitted by any means, copied, reproduced or modified without the prior
Mutual Coupling
Distance Protection - P 60
Mutual Coupling
Mutual coupling causes distance relays to either
underreach or overreach.
Positive and negative sequence has no impact.
Zero sequence mutual coupling can have a significant
influence on the relay.
Only affects ground fault distance.

Distance Protection - P 61
Z2 Boost G/F
Z2 PH
Zmo
Mutual Coupling Example Under Reach
Distance Protection - P 62
Z2 reduced G/F
Z2 PH
Mutual Coupling Example Over Reach
Distance Protection - P 63
Z1 G/F (optional)
Z1 G/F (normal)
Zmo
Mutual Coupling Example Over Reach
GRID
Technical Institute
This document is the exclusive property of Alstom Grid and shall not be
transmitted by any means, copied, reproduced or modified without the prior
Ancilliary Functions
Distance Protection - P 65
X
X
X
Switch on to Fault (SOTF)
Fast tripping for faults on line energisation, even where
line VTs provide no prefault voltage memory
Distance Protection - P 66
Voltage Transformer Supervision
A VT fault and subsequent operation of VT fuses or MCBs results in
misrepresentation of primary voltages
Relay will remain stable as the current phase selector will not pick up
Subsequent system fault may cause unwanted / incorrect tripping
VTS operating from presence of V
0
with no I
0
or V
2
with no I
2
is used
to block relay if required
Distance Protection - P 67
VT Supervision
Loss of 1 or 2 phase voltages
Loss of all 3 phase voltages

Upon line energisation
Loss of 1 or 2 phase voltages
Loss of all 3 phase voltages

Digital input to monitor MCB

Set to block voltage dependent functions
Distance Protection - P 68
Will not operate for load or
stable power swing

1
,
2
,
3
, = Angles
between system voltages
at K and L
increases as power
swing
approaches relay at G
J is point where power swing
enters relay characteristic
At J the angle between
voltages at G & H is 90
Normal limit of angle between
voltages at G & H for
load is of the order of 30
L
K
Z
S
H

H
Z
1

3

J
G
Z
S
G

1

Power Swing Locus

2

L
O
A
D
Zone 1 Mho Relay
Distance Protection - P 69
Comparison between Stability of Mho and Quadrilateral
Impedance Elements during a Power Swing
jX
Power
Swing
Locus
R
u
Distance Protection - P 70
jX
Power Swing
Locus
R
Z3
ZP
Illustration of Basic Power Swing
Blocking System
Distance Protection - P 71
A power swing will result in continuous change of current
Continuous output from the relay superimposed current element can
be used to block for a power swing
Using this method the relay is able to operate for faults occurring
during a power swing
Power Swing Blocking
Distance Protection - P 72
High resistance ground faults
Instantaneous or time delayed
IEC and IEEE curves
Single or shared signalling channel
Directional Earth Fault Protection (DEF)
GRID
Technical Institute
This document is the exclusive property of Alstom Grid and shall not be
transmitted by any means, copied, reproduced or modified without the prior
Transformer Feeders
Distance Protection - P 74
Zone 1 = Z
L
+ 0.5Z
T
T1 = Instantaneous
Zone 2 = 1.2 (Z
L
+Z
T
)
T2 = Co-ordinate with downstream protection
Zone 3
T
3

- Back-up use as appropriate
Z
L

Z
T

21
Transformer Feeders
Distance Protection - P 75
Low Voltage VT, High Voltage CT
* 1 VT may be required to account for phase shift.
Example 1
Z
T
= 10O , Z
L
= 1O
Set relay Z
1
= 0.8 x (Z
T
+ Z
L
) = 8.8O

Z
1
does not reach through transformer.
Example 2
Z
T
= 10O , Z
L
= 1O
Z
1
= Z
T
+ 0.8Z
L
= 10.8O
with 20% error = 12.96O - overreach problem

Z
T

21
Z
L

GRID
Technical Institute
This document is the exclusive property of Alstom Grid and shall not be
transmitted by any means, copied, reproduced or modified without the prior