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Digestive System

Digestive System
2. To understand the mechanism of defecation

3. To understand the functional anatomy of

4. To understand the actual mechanical
aspects of food ingestion and digestion
5. To understand how foods are chemically
digested by the different GIT segments
6. To know the basic principles of GI
Digestive System
Digestive System
Processes of Digestion:
2. Movt of food through the alimentary tract

3. Secretion of digestive juices and digestion

of food
4. Absorption of H2O, various electrolytes and
digestive products
5. Circulation of blood thru GI organs to carry
away the absorbed substances
6. Control of all these fxns by local, nervous,
and hormonal systems
Digestive System

GI Wall

• Motor fxns of the gut performed by the

different layers of smooth ms
• Individual smooth ms fibers arranged in
bundles of parallel fibers
Digestive System

• Ms fibers electrically connected with one

another thru large numbers of gap junctions
(more rapid along length of bundle)
• Each ms layer fxns as a syncytium

• N resting membrane potential: -50 - -60 mV

(ave: -56 mV)

• Has 2 types of electrical waves
• Slow vs spikes
Digestive System
Slow waves Spikes (peaks of slow
Rhythmic *Tonic (continuous
Not action potentials (AP) repetitive spikes)
Intensity:5-15 mV True AP
Freq: 3-12/min Has longer duration of AP
Cause: interstitial cells of (large number of Ca ions)
Cajal (electrical Occur with resting
pacemakers for smooth membrane potential more
ms cells); Na ions only so positive than -40 mV
(-) ms cx
Not cause ms cx except in
stomach (precx for spikes)
Digestive System
Enteric NS
2 plexuses:
Myenteric/Auerbach’s Submucosal/Meissner’s
(outer) (inner)
1° fxn:controls GI movts Controls local intestinal
Extends entire length of secretion and local blood
GIT flow and absorption amd
local cx of submucosal
Excitatory + inhibitory (to
pyloric and ileocecal
valve sphincters) Inner wall of each minute
segment of intestine
Digestive System

Principal effects of myenteric plexus:

2. Inc tonic cx/ “tone” of gut wall

3. Inc intensity of rhythmical cxs

4. Slightly inc rate of rhythm of cx

5. Inc velocity of conduction of excitatory

waves along the gut wall
Digestive System
Acetylcholine (excitatory) vs Nor/epinephrine (inhibitory)
Autonomic NS:
Cranial (vagus n which is T5 – L2
more afferent; more for Innervate all of GIT
upper digestive tract Norepinephrine (1 °),
(including pancreas) epinephrine
Sacral (2nd-4th segments; for Inhibits intestinal tract
defecation reflexes) smooth ms (except mucosal
Inc activity of ENS ms)
More extensive inn to oral
cavity and anus
Digestive System

Intense vasoconstriction to Inc local blood flow due to
dec blood flow (direct) inc glandular sec (indirect)
Needed for emergency for
inc blood flow to other
areas during heavy ex and
circulatory and
hemorrhagic shocks
Digestive System
GI Reflexes:
Within gut wall From gut to From gut to
ENS prevertebral SC/brainstem
sympathetic and back to GIT
ganglia and back
to GIT
For GI secretion, Gastrocolic By vagus n
peristalsis, Enterogastric Pain (inhibitory)
mixing cx, local Colonoileal defecation
Digestive System

 Gastrocolic – from stomach to cause

evacuation of colon
 Enterogastric – from colon and small intestine
to inhibit stomach moility and secretion
 Colonoileal – from colon to inhibit emptying of
ileal contents into colon
 Defecation – from colon and rectum to SC
and back for powerful colonic, rectal, and
abdominal cxs for defecation
Digestive System

GI Blood Flow (Splanchnic)

Portal vein
↓liver sinusoids
Hepatic vein

Vena cava
Arterial Circulation: sup and inf mesenteric a
(small and large intestines)
Celiac artery (stomach)
Digestive System
Hormonal Control of GI Motility
Hormone Location Stimulus Action
Gastrin “G” cells of antrum of Ingestion of meal Stimulation of gastric
stomach (stomach distention, acid secretion and
products of protein) growth of gastric
mucosa; promotes
stomach emptying
Cholecystokinin “I” cells in mucosa of Digestive products of contracts gallbladder,
duodenum and fat, fatty acids, and expelling bile to small
jejunum monoglycerides in intestine (Strong; fat
intestinal contents emusification); inhibits
stomach cx for slow
emptying of food from
stomach (moderate)
Secretin “S” cells in mucosa of Acidic gastric juice Slows motility of GIT
duodenum emptying into (mild);promotes
duodenum from pancreatic sec of
pylorus of stomach bicarbonate to
neutralize acid in small
intestine; opposes
stomach sec
Digestive System
Hormone Location Stimulus Action

Gastric inhibitory Mucosa of upper Fatty acids and Dec stomach motor
peptide small intestine amino acids, activity (mild),
carbohydrate (less) slowing emptying of
gastric contents into
duodenum when
upper small
stimulates sec of
insulin by pancreas

Motilin Upper duodenum during fasting; Inc GI motility

inhibited p ingestion
Digestive System

Functional Types of Movs in GIT:

2. Propulsive
 By peristalsis stimulated by gut distention
(2-3 cm behind); heavily depends to active
myenteric plexus (myenteric/peristaltic
reflex)+ anal dir (Law of the Gut)
2. Mixing
 By peristalsis and local intermittent
constrictive cxs
Digestive System
Mechanics of Ingestion
2. Mastication (Chewing)- teeth

*chewing reflex
*rate of digestion depends on total surface area
exposed to digestive sec
2. Swallowing (Deglutition)
3 stages: voluntary, pharyngeal (reflex),
Digestive System
Digestive System

Motor Functions of Stomach

2. Storage *vagovagal reflex
Accommodating capacity:
2. Mixing *chyme; by mixing (slow) waves, retropulsion
(peristalsis and upstream squeezing action)
3. Slow emptying at an appropriate rate – pyloric pump
(peristalsis + mixing); regulated more by inhibition
in duodenum
Digestive System

Motor Functions of Small Intestine

2. Mixing Cxs (Segmentation)
- By slow waves; also depends on myenteric
n plexus
Digestive System

2. Propulsive Cxs Enhance Inhibits

- By peristalsis (weaker Motility Motility in
and very slow; faster in Small Int
proximal than distal Gastrin Secretin
intestine); CCK Glucagon
- Net movt: 1 cm/min (3-
5 hrs passage from
pylorus to ileocecal
valve) Serotonin
The function of peristalsis in small intestine is not only to cause
progression of chyme toward ileocecal valve but also to spread out the
chyme along the intestinal mucosa
Digestive System
Motor Functions of Large Intestine (Colon) –
very slow movts
2. Absorption of water and electrolytes from
chyme to form solid feces (upper ½)
Digestive System

2. Storage of feces until expelled (lower ½)

haustrations – mixing and minor propulsion

Propulsive – slow but presistent haustrations
(8-15 hrs) vs mass movts (facilitated by
*gastrocolic and duodenocolic reflexes)
Digestive System

Defecation (both voluntary and subconscious

control by relaxation of external and internal
anal sphincters)
Digestive System

Secretory glands:
2. Digestive enzymes – all are proteins

3. Mucous glands – lubrication and protection

of GIT
* salivary glands and pancreas lie outside the
walls of alimentary tract, with glandular cells
emptying secretions into the GIT
Digestive System

Autonomic Regulation
Slight to moderate inc in Inc rates of alimentary
sec glandular sec (upper
Vasoconstriction (so tract and of large
reduces sec more than intestine)
Digestive System
Secretion of Saliva (800-1500 mL/day; pH: 6.0-7.0,
suitable for ptyalin; has K and bicarbonate)

Salivary Glands Secretion

Parotid serous

Submandibular Serous and mucus

Sublingual Serous and mucus

Buccal mucus

Serous – has ptyalin for starch digestion

Mucus – has mucin for lubrication and surface protection
Digestive System
↓ Salivation ↑

Sour taste
Rough Smooth objects in mouth
Favorite foods
Digestive System

Esophageal Secretion – mucous (lubrication

and protection, esp to peptic ulcer)
Gastric Secretion
3. mucus-secreting cells

4. Tubular glands
1. Oxyntic/gastric (acid-forming) – HCl, pepsinogen
(+HCl = pepsin for protein digestion in acid
solution of pH of 5), intrinsic factor (for vit B12
absorption in ileum), mucus (prox 80% stomach)
2. Pyloric – mucus (alkaline), gastrin (distal 20%)
Digestive System
Phases of Gastric Secretion
Even before food enters
stomach; 20% of total
gastric sec; inc c greater

70% of total gastric sec;

stimulated by gastrin
Digestive System
Pancreatic Secretion
 secreted most abundantly in the presence of chyme

in the upper portion of small intestine

 contains bicarbonate ions for neutralizing acidity of

Digestion Inactive Secretions Activated Enzymes (p secreted into
intestinal tract)
Protein Trypsinogen trypsin (most), chymotrypsin, etc
Carbo pancreatic amylase

Fat Pancreatic lipase,

cholesterolesterase, phospholipase
Digestive System

*papilla of Vater – where pancreatic sec and

bile empty into the duodenum
Digestive System
Secretions of Small Intestine
Brunner’s glands – secrete alkaline mucus
*duodenum – frequent site of peptic ulcer (~50%)
* Small intestine has villi for absorption of nutrients and
their digestive products ino the blood
Enzyme Action

Peptidases Peptides into amino acids

Sucrase, maltase, Dissac into

isomaltase, lactase monosaccharides
Intestinal lipase Neutral fats into glycerol
and fatty acids
Digestive System

Secretions of Large Intestine

 Mucosa has no villi

 Epithelial cells mainly of mucous cells

secreting alkaline mucus (ph: 8.0) – inc sec

along with inc peristaltic motility of colon by
Digestive System
Digestion in GIT
Digestion Sources Enzyme
Carbohydrates Sucrose, Mouth and stomach:ptyalin (parotid g)
lactose, Small int:pancreatic amylase (lactase, sucrase, maltase, alpha-
starches dextrinase)
*before chyme goes to duodenum, virtually all carbo are
Proteins Meats Stomach: Pepsin, esp for collagen (most active: 2.0-3.0 pH;
inactive:> 5.0)
Upper small int
duodenum and jejunum (most): proteolytic enzymes from

pancreas: trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase;

enterocytes lining the villi of small int – for final digestion into amino
acids into the blood
Fats Animal Stomach: lingual lipase (secreted by lingual glands in mouth and
Neutral/Triglyce (most) swallowed with saliva)
rides Small intestine: all occurs; also has enteric lipase from
*fat emusification in duodenum by bile acids
*pancreatic lipase – most impt
Digestive System
Absorption in GIT
 Total quantity of fluid that must be absorbed

each day by the intestines = ingested fluid

(1.5 L)+ secreted in GI secretions (7 L) – 8-9
L (1.5L not absorbed in the intestine)
 Depends on absorptive capacity of villus (- in

stomach, which can absorb lipid soluble

substances like alcohol and aspirin)
Digestive System
Less in distal small int; inc
Absorptive area another 10x

Or folds Kerckring – well

developed in duodenum and
jejunum; inc absorptive area 3x
Digestive System

On each epithelial cell on each

villus; inc absorptive capacity
for another 20x

Combination of 3 inc total absorptive area of mucosa ~1000x

Digestive System
Absorption in Small Intestine
Substance Mechanism

Water Diffusion

Ions Ca, Fe – active from small int

Nutrients Allmonosaccharides- active thru facilitated diffusion (+

Carbo Na in glucose; - in fructose)
Same (Na co-transport/facilitated diffusion)

Direct diffusion to portal blood then absorbed thru

lymphatics (hort and medium)

Digestive System

Diarrhea – secretion of NaCl and water into

intestinal lumen greater than reabsorption
(loss of 5-10L/day)
Digestive System

Absorption in Large Intestine

*Feces – only has <100 mL of fluid (1-5mEq);
composition: ¾ H20; ¼ solid
 Most in prox ½ (absorbing colon)

vs distal ½ (storage colon)

 Can absorb max of 5-8 L of fluid and

Digestive System

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