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Chapter Nine Applied Socialism

Preview 1: Socialism After Marx

After the death of Marx, the socialist movement split into separate groups: The orthodox Marxists who soon disappear The Revisionists and Fabians who favor gradual, non-violent achievement of socialism The Marxist-Leninists who favor an immediate, violent socialist revolution led by a small undemocratic elite.

Preview 2: The Leninist States After Lenin

Stalin created a totalitarian model in Russia and transformed the ideology into a nationalist doctrine which later collapsed. China has been more successful in adapting the system to modern economic needs but has weak ideological commitment and increasing corruption Cuba also resists political change but adapts economic liberalization. Cuba and other Developing World Marxist states oppose western domination.

Preview 3: Revival of Socialism?

There has been a tentative revival of socialism in some post-Soviet and Eastern European nations. The most enthusiastic socialist movements are now found in Latin America. Whether these poor agrarian societies can sustain socialism is not yet known. There has been a mild socialist surge in the US in response to the Great Recession.

Socialism after Marx 1 Orthodox Marxism

Orthodox Marxists were led by Friedrich Engels until he died in 1895 and then by Karl Kautsky (1854 -1938). They were chiefly in Germany. They looked forward to the expected revolution and refused to cooperate with non-socialists on reforms. Workers who wanted reforms left the orthodox Marxists for other parties. Kautsky finally agreed to support reforms and admitted revolution might not be necessary,

Socialism after Marx 2 Revisionism

Revisionism: Eduard Bernstein (1850 -1932) founded revisionism after seeing several of Marxs predictions were not coming true. He and the French Socialist Jean Jaures argued that economics was not the only motivator. Also, the capitalist class was increasing as millions of people bought stocks. Wealth was more evenly spread and the lives of the proletariat were getting better instead of worse. Revisionists favored evolution over revolution, and worked with other parties for social change through democratic methods. Their ideas are the basis of the modern democratic socialist movement which remains important in Europe today. It also had modest success in the US from about 1900 to 1940, led by Eugene Debs and later by Norman Thomas.

Socialism after Marx 3 Fabianism

Fabianism held that socialism must be accepted from below not imposed from above. Fabians believed that socialism would be accepted by all freedom-loving people because the power of money meant that people could not be politically equal unless they were economically equal. Fabian leaders included George Bernard Shaw (playwright) and H.G. Wells (sf writer). Their writings aided the early growth of the modern British Labour (British spelling) Party, but it has become less socialist in recent years.

Marxism-Leninism 1 Lenin
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov Lenin (1870 1924)was a Russian revolutionary exiled to Switzerland in 1900, where he became leader of a Russian Marxist faction, the Bolsheviks , who held that a socialist revolution was possible in Tsarist Russia but thought a revolution would not happen on its own as Marx had expected. It would have to be imposed by a small, highly disciplined party.

Marxism-Leninism 2
Theories of Revolution and Revolutionaries
Marx and Lenin: Differences Marx thought socialism might come peacefully Lenin thought socialism must come violently Marx thought the vanguard of the proletariat would just teach class-consciousness to workers Lenin thought the vanguard must be a small, disciplined group dedicated to overthrowing the government.

Marxism-Leninism 3
Theories of Revolution and Revolutionaries 2 Marx believed the revolution would occur when a class-conscious proletariat would rise up against capitalism, so the dictatorship of the proletariat would be short Lenin thought the vanguard would trigger a revolution before most of the proletariat was class-conscious, so the dictatorship of the proletariat would last a longer time and be less democratic than in Marxs version.

Marxism-Leninism 4 Lenin in Power

Marx was vague on whether the proletariat itself would be a group dictator until the capitalists were eliminated or whether there would be a vanguard as dictator over the proletariat Lenin made the Bolshevik Party a collective dictator to carry out the revolution and impose a dictatorship on society until it reached the utopian stage. The Party had a dictatorship over the proletariat

Marxism-Leninism 5 Imperialism 1
After Marxs time, industrial capitalists came to rely on money from banks for financing investment. Lenin called this finance capitalism. The finance capitalists not wanting to provoke the proletariat at home and needing cheap labor and resources -- exported their exploitation by colonialism. Lenin called this imperialist capitalism.

Marxism-Leninism 6 Imperialism 2
The finance capitalists shared some of the profits of colonialism with workers in their home country, buying them off with gains from exploiting colonial peoples. However, Lenin believed in the end competition for colonies would bring a war between the great capitalist nations in which the capitalists would destroy each other, so imperialism was the final stage of capitalism.

Marxism-Leninism 6 The Weakest Link

Lenin explained that a socialist revolution took place in Russia (instead of the more highly industrialized nations)because non-colonialist powers like Russia had to exploit their own workers more to compete with the colonialist powers. The repression of the tsarist government faced with the dedication of the Bolsheviks made Russia the weakest link of capitalism where revolution was logical.

Marxism-Leninism 7 Achieving the Utopia

State socialism: under Lenin, the state would control all aspects of the economy; the profits would pay for investment in new productivity, social welfare programs and consumer goods. Lenins formula for distribution changed Marx to read From each according to his ability, to each according to his work. People who did not cooperate with the regime were starved into submission by withholding necessities of life.

The Soviet Union and Russia Lenins and Stalins Policies: Lenin
Lenin seized power in 1917 and took Russia out of World War I in 1918. In the Russian Civil War (1918 -1921) the White armies backed by the US and European allies were defeated by Lenins Red Army. Lenin tried to control the economy but it collapsed. He adopted the New Economic Policy (NEP) that re-privatized much of the economy. However, he tightened political control, suppressing opposition parties etc.

The Soviet Union and Russia Lenins and Stalins Policies: Stalin
Power Struggle after Lenins Death: Josef Stalin wins, arguing for building socialism in one country -- strengthen Russias economy Leon Trotsky loses, arguing for permanent revolution to spread worldwide revolution. Stalin subjected international Marxism-Leninism to Russian national goals.

The Soviet Union and Russia Lenins and Stalins Policies: Stalin 2
Five Year Plans: Stalin ends the NEP and starts a series of Five Year Plans to industrialize Russia. All industries are nationalized and agriculture is collectivized. Everything is sacrificed to building heavy industry and the military. Millions of people suffer and die, but Russia becomes a major industrial power. Stalin creates a totalitarian state using terror as a governing tool. A cult of personality declares him the all-wise leader.

The Soviet Union and Russia Lenins and Stalins Policies: Stalin 3
Germany invaded Russia in World War II but was driven out after years of terrible fighting. 27 Million Russians died and 25% of the national wealth was destroyed In return, Russia overran much of Germany and seized control of Eastern Europe. Stalin ruthlessly suppressed Eastern Europe after the war

Soviet Atrophy
Nikita Khrushchev (1894 -1971) ended Stalins worst excesses after Stalins death (1953), but suppressed uprisings in Eastern Europe. His attempts to create peaceful coexistence with the US and reform the Soviet system failed. Leonid Brezhnev (1906 -1982) removed Khrushchev (1964) but let the Soviet Union fall into stagnation and corruption

Soviet Atrophy 2 The Fall of Communism

Mikhail Gorbachev (born 1931, still alive) started ambitious reforms in 1985 with little success. Many nationalities defied the Soviet government. A coup failed to remove Gorbachev, but the Soviet Union dissolved. Boris Yeltsin (1931 2007) made Russia independent. His privatization policy put Russian industry in the hands of a few rich oligarchs. Vladimir Putin (born 1952) now rules Russia with a heavy hand (but has defeated many of the oligarchs).

China had an ancient Confucian culture but suffered from European pressure after 1837. Sun Yi Xian (Sun Yat-sen ) proclaimed a republic (1911) but could not really establish it. Sun allied with the Chinese Communist Party in the 1920s After Suns death his successor Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) attacked the Communists, driving them from the cities to the countryside. However, Japan invaded China, distracting him. After World War II, the Communists drove Jiang's government to Taiwan and created the Peoples Republic of China (1949) l

China 2: Ruralization of Chinese Communism

Mao Zedong called for the Communists to leave the cities because the peasants, not the proletariat, were Chinas real revolutionaries. The Communists escaped Jiangs armies by the Long March to northern China. During the March, Mao was recognized as head of the Communist Party, a position he kept for life.

China 3: The Political Stage of the Revolution: Early Mao

Maos Early Policies: Equal Rights for Women Collectivization of Agriculture Five-Year Plan to industrialize Deadly force used to impose plans Moderate leaders try to force Mao into retirement but fail

China 4: The Political Side of the Revolution: Maos Re-revolutions

The Re-Revolutionized Revolution: Mao repeatedly launches disruptive radical programs The Hundred Flowers Campaign: Mao invites criticism but then represses it The Great Leap Forward: Mao pushes taking industry to the people but it fails The Great Cultural Revolution: Mao tells young Red Guards to attack senior officials; then uses army to suppress Red Guards.

China 5: The Political Side of the Revolution : The Moderates

After Mao dies, Deng Xiao-ping becomes Chinese leader, defeating the Maoist Gang of Four Deng reprivatizes 75% of Chinas economy China now has the worlds 2nd largest GDP (up from 3rd when our text was written) China is the largest US creditor The Communist Party remains in power

China 6: Current Issues

Rising crime rate due to relaxed travel policies Rising inflation Growing gap between rich and poor Epidemic of suicides Population Control: One Child Per Family Policy Official corruption Suppression of Dissent (Tienanmen Square) Regional resistance in Tibet and Xinjiang Open-market Authoritarianism

China 7: Principles of Maoism

Populism: Mao relies on peasants to support the revolution, not the proletariat. Students and officials are sent to learn from the people. Permanent Revolution: Mao calls for continual armed struggle at home and abroad The Mass Line: the people are intrinsically red and repeatedly mobilized to accomplish the goals of the revolution.

China 8: The Bourgeoisie

At first Mao tolerated national bourgeoisie who cooperated with the revolution. He attacked imperialist bourgeoisie who had cooperated with foreigners and landlords whose land was given to the peasants. Later the national bourgeoisie lost their property, but many were kept on as managers ad a few regained property afterward.

China 9: Guerilla Warfare

Maos book on Guerilla Warfare divides it into 2 parts. military and political. Military has three stages: 1) build secure bases 2) small groups attack the enemy by ambushes and other guerilla tactics. 3) After victory is certain, there are large-scale conventional battles Guerillas should avoid major battles until stage 3

China 10: Guerilla Warfare 2

The Political Side: The guerillas should win over the peasants Guerillas should set a good example and treat local people with respect Guerillas should set up local governments They should redistribute land to the peasants They should work together with the peasants Thy should teach the peasants about revolution

Cuba 1: The Cuban Revolution

1898: US supports Cuban revolt against Spain 1901: US declares Cuba independent, but retains much influence economic & political 1920s US mobsters move into Cuba (Havana ) 1950s Fulgencio Batista is Cuban dictator 1953 -1959 Fidel Castro leads revolt against Batista ; initially leftist but maybe not Leninist Early 1960s US quarrels with Castro, he allies with USSR and declares himself Marxist-Leninist

Cuba 2: After the Revolution

1961: US sponsors unsuccessful Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba by anti-Castro exiles. 1962: US tightens trade embargo on Cuba (which is still in force today) Castro adopts Soviet-style economic policies which largely fail. Price of sugar (Cubas main export) falls. Cuba relies heavily on Soviet aid until Soviet collapse in 1991.

Cuba 3: The Special Period

Cuba goes through economic crisis in 1990s regime is expected to collapse but survives. (It now gets aid from Chavez in Venezuela) The Cubans call the crisis the special period. 2006 Fidel Castro in poor health retires in favor of his brother Raoul but remains influential. Raoul loosens some economic controls. Negotiations for US/Cuba relations continue.

Cuba 4: Why the Regime Survives

1.Life is good compared to rest of Latin America 2. Fidel is still popular for defying the US 3. People fear of return to pre-Castro society dominated by white elite (now in exile in US) 4. Castros police-state tactics suppress dissent 5. Social policies are fairly successful, though economy is a basket case.

Cuba 5: Fidelismo
1. Castro is strongly anti-imperialist and anti-US. 2. Early attempts to sponsor revolutions in Latin America failed (Che Guevara in Bolivia) 3. Cuban Missile Crisis discredited him briefly 4. Castro supported revolutions in Africa 5. Castro has strong personal governing style 6. Castros policies are now more pragmatic but remain committed to independence from US

The Re-Emergence of Socialism

After the Soviet collapse, other Leninist regimes were expected to follow China, other Asian regimes and Cuba have made economic but not political changes Some post-Soviet nations have elected mild socialist governments or are still ruled by formerly Soviet authorities. Marxists have been elected in Latin America

The Re-Emergence of Socialism 2 Latin America

From 1980s, Latin America moved from military regimes to democracy and capitalism Global market forces have not favored capitalism in Latin America (except Brazil) Latin Americans have elected leftist governments in several countries Some are moderates (Brazil, Chile, Argentina) Others are more radical (Venezeula, Bolivia, Ecuador, Nicaragua)

The Re-Emergence of Socialism 3 Latin American Radicals

Nicaragua: Sandinista revolutionaries seized power in 1980s, then lost elections under heavy US pressure. Recently Sandinista Daniel Ortega got re-elected president (2007) Venezuela: Hugo Chavez spends oil money on social programs and has won several elections, but suppresses opposition Bolivia: Evo Morales has broad nationalization policy and has ended presidential term limits

The Re-Emergence of Socialism American Socialism (?)

In response to the 2008 Recession, G.W. Bush and later Barack Obama put US money into the economy. Obama also sponsored a new health program (Affordable Care Act, Obamacare). Opponents describe some of these policies as socialism though they follow precedents in the US since the New Deal of the 1930s. Aside from the health plan, most of these are temporary.

Will Socialism Disappear?

Baradat believes Socialism will continue because Few societies are as individualist as the US Societies used to welfare programs like them Even if programs must be cut in crises, they will probably be reinstituted later Marxism-Leninism may be discredited, but the idea that all people have a right to a decent life and protection from the powerful survives

Will Socialism Disappear 2

More cynical reasons socialism may continue Businessmen want to receive government aid Politicians win votes with government money Broader policy reasons for socialism (or at least government intervention in the economy) Dwindling natural resources and environment issues may need government regulation Globalization may need regulation

Chapter 9 Discussion Questions

1. In what ways did the revisionists challenge Marxism? 2. What are the major ideological and practical innovations that Lenin made in Marxist thought? 3. How did Mao modify Marxism? 4. Why has Cuba failed to collapse along with the rest of the Soviet bloc? 5. Why is socialism in some form likely to remain a viable ideology?