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Diversity And Classification of Flowering Plants:

Eudicots

Eudicots
Palynological apomorphy: tricolpate or tricolpate-derived pollen grain

Eudicots
CORE EUDICOTS CARYOPHYLLALES Nyctaginaceae Amaranthaceae Plumbaginaceae ROSIDS MYRTALES Myrtaceae CUCURBITALES Cucurbitaceae FABALES Fabaceae= Leguminosae MALPIGHIALES Euphorbiaceae ROSALES Rosaceae Moraceae MALVALES Malvaceae SAPINDALES Rutaceae ASTERIDS GENTIANALES Rubiaceae Apocynaceae s.l. LAMIALES Lamiaceae=Labiatae SOLANALES Solanaceae ASTERALES Asteraceae=Compositae

Asteraceae: 21 000 spp. Orchidaceae: 17 500 spp. Leguminosae: 16 500 spp. Rubiaceae: 13 000 spp. Graminae: 8 000 spp. Mammalia: 5 000 spp.

CORE EUDICOTS
CARYOPHYLLALES

encompass a traditional group formerly known as the Centrospermae (or Caryophyllidae, after Cronquist, 1981, and Takhtajan, 1999).

Higher Caryophyllales
Betalain pigments (instead of anthocyanins)
HO CO OH HO N N CO OH

HOO C

N H

CO OH

HOO C

N H

CO OH

sieve tube plastids with protein crystalloid inclusions surrounded by proteinaceous filaments

campylotropous ovule

campylotropous ovule

perispermous seeds

- storage tissue in nucellus, not endosperm

NYCTAGINACEAE
Herbs, shrubs, sometimes trees Leaves simple Alternate or opposite Exstipulate

NYCTAGINACEAE
Flowers uni- or bisexual Involucre of bracts Perianth tube petaloid Bracts usually colored Cyme K (5) A ? G ? [Bougainvilla spectabilis]

NYCTAGINACEAE
Unicarpellate 1-ovulate Fruit achene Fruit usually inside persistent calyx tube Endospermous

NYCTAGINACEAE
Bougainvillea spectabilis Mirabilis jalapa alas cuatro or four o clock plant Pisonia lettuce tree

Diversity And Classification of Flowering Plants:


Eudicots: Rosids

ROSIDS
Very large, monophyletic group of Eudicots Linked by no clear non-molecular apomorphies Ovules bitegmic (2 integuments) & crassinucellate [contrast with Asterids]

Myrtaceae - Myrtle family


(myrtus, Gr. name for myrtle). 120 genera / 3850 species

trees and shrubs with glandular-punctate or pellucid leaves Usually epiperigynous flowers with numerous stamens. Papery or flaky bark Aromatic terpenes, spicy resin Leaves pellucid-dotted Ca 4-5 Co 4-5 A G (2-5), inferior [rarelyhalf-inferior or superior], with hypanthium.

MYRTACEAE
Psidium guajava guava Eucalyptus well conceal, referring to operculum covering stamens in bud Syzygium samarangense makopa Syzygium cumini duhat = Eugenia jambolana Callistemon

Leptospermum laevigatum

CUCURBITACEAE
Climbing herbs Tendrils Leaves cordate Palmately veined Alternate Exstipulate

CUCURBITACEAE
Flowers unisexual 5-merous Calyx gamosepalous Corolla poly- or gamopetalous Stamens 5, coherent into a synandrium

CUCURBITACEAE
Gynoecium inferior Carpels 3 Uniloculate 3 parietal placentae Fruit pepo, sometimes capsule Exalbuminous

Coccinea grandis

Melothria pendula

CUCURBITACEAE
Cucurbita maxima squash Cucumis cucumber, melon Momordica charantia ampalaya/bitter gourd Luffa cylindrica patola Citrullus pakwan/watermelon

CUCURBITACEAE
Lagenaria upo/bottle gourd Benincasa hispida kundol Sechium sayote Melothria Trichosanthes

Fabaceae (Leguminosae) - Bean/Pea family


(after faba, Latin name for broad bean). 643 genera / 18,000 species

trees, shrubs, vines, or herbs, stipulate, often compound leaves Single, unicarpellous pistil with marginal placentation legume (or modified legume) Ca 5 or (5) Co 5 or (5) A 10 or (10) to G 1 superior, hypanthium sometimes present

worldwide distribution ecologically important for nitrogen-fixing rhizobial nodules pulses (e.g., beans, peas, soybeans, etc.), fodder plants, oils, timber trees, gums, dyes, and insecticides.

Caesalpinioideae Flowers zygomorphic; petals distinct; posterior petal inner to laterals; stamens distinct.
Mimosoideae Flowers actinomorphic; petals distinct or connate; stamens often , showy; flowers often densely aggregated. Faboideae (=Papilionoideae) Flowers zygomorphic; perianth papilionaceous; posterior petal outer to laterals; stamens connate.

Fabaceae: 3 subfamilies

Caesalpinioideae
Flowers zygomorphic Petals distinct Posterior petal inner to laterals Stamens distinct

posterior petal inner to laterals

Bauhinia variegata Orchid Tree

stamens distinct

Bauhinia variegata Orchid Tree

style

ovary

stipe

Bauhinia variegata Orchid Tree

Cassia alata - akapulko Purgative, for cough, fungicide stomatitis.

CAESALPINOIDEAE
Caesalpinia pulcherrima caballero Caesalpinia inerma Cassia fistula golden shower Cassia alata Acapulco

CAESALPINOIDEAE
Delonix regia flame tree Bauhinia purpurea alibangbang Cynometra Tamarindus indica Intsia ipil

Mimosoideae
Flowers actinomorphic, often densely aggregated
Petals distinct or connate; hypanthium sometimes present Stamens often , showy

heads Acacia spp.

phyllode

phyllode

rachillae with leaflets Acacia spp.: phyllodinous

spike

flowers actinomorphic, stamens

ovary (removed)
Acacia longifolia (native to Australia)

Calliandra haematocephala

Mimosa sp.

Pithecellobium unquis-cati Cat Claw

MIMOSOIDEAE
Mimosa pudica makahiya Samanea saman acacia Acacia sp. Leucaena leucocephala ipil-ipil Calliandra Pithecellobium dulce camachile

Faboideae (Papilionoideae)
Flowers zygomorphic Perianth papilionaceous Terminology: Posterior petal = banner or standard Lateral petals = wings Anterior petals = keel petals (basally distinct; distally connate; collectively called the keel) Posterior petal (banner) outer to laterals (wings) Stamens connate: monadelphous or diadelphous

PAPILIONOIDEAE
Phaseolus abitsuelas, lima bean, patani Vigna munggo, sitaw Psophocarpus sigarillas Sesbania katuray

PAPILIONOIDEAE
Dolichos lablab batao = Lablab purpureus Pterocarpus indica narra Arachis pintoi ornamental peanut Arachis hypogea peanut

PAPILIONOIDEAE
Pisum sativum sitsaro, peas Centrosema Clitorea Desmodium

PAPILIONOIDEAE
Gliricidia kakawate or madre de cacao Crotalaria (with inflated pods) Mucuna pruriens lipa Pachyrrizus erosus singkamas Abrus precatorius

banner outer to laterals wing petals

keel

Wisteria sinensis Wisteria

keel petal

stamens connate: diadelphous (9+1) in Wisteria

Wisteria sinensis Wisteria

style (ovary hidden)

Wisteria sinensis Wisteria

banner
wing petals

calyx

stamens

Erythrina caffra

stamens connate: diadelphous (9+1)

style

ovary stipe pistil removed

style

Erythrina caffra

pistil unicarpellous

placentation marginal

(l.s.)

(c.s.)

Erythrina caffra

Clitoria mariana -a resupinate papilionoid

Euphorbiaceae - Spurge family


(after Euphorbus, physician to the king of Mauritania, 1st century). 313 genera / 8,100 species

unisexual flowers with a superior,


usually 3-carpellate ovary with 1 ovule per carpel, apical-axile in placentation;

Crotonoideae and Euphorbioideae have a red, yellow, or


usually white (milky) latex Euphorbioideae -cyathium inflorescence.

K0 A 1 G 0
K0 A0 G (3)

cyathium

An inflorescence bearing small, unisexual flowers and subtended by an involucre (frequently with petaloid glands), the entire inflorescence resembling a single flower.

EUPHORBIACEAE
Manihot esculenta cassava or kamoteng kahoy Euphorbia spp. Euphorbia pulcherrima poinsettia Jatropha spp. Ricinus communis castor plant Antidesma bignay

EUPHORBIACEAE
Phyllanthus acidus karmay Acalypha hispida chenille plant Pedilanthus tithymalloides Aleurites moluccana lumbang, candlenut tree

Ricinus communis, the source of castor bean oil and the

deadly poison ricin


Hevea brasiliensis, the major source of natural rubber; Manihot esculentus, cassava/manioc Oil (biodiesel, Jatropha), timber, medicinal, dye, and ornamental plants.

Euphorbia grandicornis

Euphorbia spp.

Manihot esculenta Manioc

Moraceae Mulberry family


(Latin name for mulberry). ca. 40 genera / 1100 species

monoecious or dioecious trees, shrubs, lianas, or herbs milky latex, stipulate, simple leaves Stipules sheathing fruit a multiple of achenes or syconium. K4 A 0 G (2) K4 A1 G 0

MORACEAE
Ficus sp. figs Artocarpus jackfruit, marang, antipolo Broussonetia himbabao Morus alba mulberry

Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit),

Ficus carica (edible fig),


Morus spp. (mulberry); paper, rubber, and timber trees; and some cultivated ornamentals, -Ficus spp., figs; the leaves of Morus alba are the food source of silkworm moth larvae.

Rosaceae - Rose family


(Latin for various roses). 95 genera / 2,800 species

stipulate leaves actinomorphic, generally pentamerous flower with hypathium present, Ca 5 Co 5 A G , superior hypanthium present.

ROSOIDEAE
Carpels numerous, fruit achene or drupelet, cyanogenic glycosides absent Rubus raspberry blackberry Rosa Fragaria vesca

PRUNOIDEAE
Carpel usually 1, fruit a drupe, with HCN Prunus peach, plum, prunes, apricot, cherry, almonds

MALOIDEAE
Carpels usually 2-5, connate or adnate to hypanthim, fruit a pome, with HCN Malus apple Pyrus communis pear

Rosaceae
economically important Fragaria (strawberry) Malus (apples) Prunus (almond, apricot, cherry, peach, plum)

Pyrus (pear)
Rubus (blackberry, raspberry) ornamentals

Fragaria vesca Strawberry

hypanthium

inferior ovary

Malus pumila Apple

Rosa spp.

Malvaceae, s.s. - Mallow family


(name used by Pliny, meaning "soft"). 111 genera / 1,800 species

Malvaceae s. l. herbs, shrubs, or trees, often with stellate trichomes, typically with an epicalyx, calyx valvate, corolla often convolute stamens connate into tube or 5- bundles Monothecal or bithecal anthers Ca (5) Co 5 A G (5) superior

A.P.G.: Malvaceae, s.l. formerly 4 families:


Malvaceae, s.s. Bombacaceae Sterculiaceae Tiliaceae

PRUNOIDEAE
Carpel usually 1, fruit a drupe, with HCN Prunus peach, plum, prunes, apricot, cherry, almonds

MALOIDEAE
Carpels usually 2-5, connate or adnate to hypanthim, fruit a pome, with HCN Malus apple Pyrus communis pear

Rosaceae
economically important Fragaria (strawberry) Malus (apples) Prunus (almond, apricot, cherry, peach, plum)

Pyrus (pear)
Rubus (blackberry, raspberry) ornamentals

Fragaria vesca Strawberry

hypanthium

inferior ovary

Malus pumila Apple

Rosa spp.

Malvaceae, s.s. - Mallow family


(name used by Pliny, meaning "soft"). 111 genera / 1,800 species

Malvaceae s. l. herbs, shrubs, or trees, often with stellate trichomes, typically with an epicalyx, calyx valvate, corolla often convolute stamens connate into tube or 5- bundles Monothecal or bithecal anthers Ca (5) Co 5 A G (5) superior

A.P.G.: Malvaceae, s.l. formerly 4 families:


Malvaceae, s.s. Bombacaceae Sterculiaceae Tiliaceae

Economic importance includes medicinal plants; Gossypium spp. (cotton, the worlds most important fiber plant) Ceiba pentandra (kapok), in both of which the seed trichomes are utilized, Corchorus spp. (jute), a bast fiber plant food and flavoring plants - Theobroma cacao (cacao, the source of chocolate), Cola nitida (cola), Abelmoschus (okra), and Durio zibethinus (durian); - ornamental cultivars such as Chorisia (floss-silk tree), Hibiscus (mallows), and Tilia (linden tree). - Adansonia digitata (baobab, tropical Africa) - economic or ecological importance.

Hibiscus sp.

Kosteletskia virginica

Durio

Theobroma cacao Cacao, source of chocolate

RUTACEAE
Trees, shrubs Aromatic flowers and fruits Leaves with translucent pellucid dots Some have thorns and expanded petiole

Leaves with pellucid dots

RUTACEAE

Flowers bisexual Regular Disc present Stamens basally connate, 2x number of petals Ca4/5Co4/5A8/10G4
/5-

disc

RUTACEAE
Ovary with 4-5- carpels Lobed ovary on disc Ovules 2-many Fruit hesperidium, follicle, drupe, baccate, schizocarp Endosperm

RUTACEAE
Citrus microcarpa - calamansi Citrus x limon [medica aurantifolia] C. maxima pomelo C. sinensis- orange C. reticulata- dalandan

Diversity And Classification of Flowering Plants:


Eudicots: Asterids

Michael G. Simpson

Asterids
Very large, diverse group 10 orders, many families Putative apomorphies:
iridoid compounds sympetalous corolla ovules: unitegmic (one integument), tenuinucellate (megasporangium 1-cell thick)

Ovules unitegmic, tenuinucellate

Apocynaceae, s.l. - Dogbane/Milkweed family (Greek


for "away from dog," in reference to past use of some taxa as a dog poison). 411 genera / 4,650 species.

The Apocynaceae, s.l. Milky latex 2-carpellate 5-merous perianth/androecium, the gynoecium usually with 2 carpels, ovaries distinct in some taxa with styles connate Ca (5) Co (5) A 5 or (5) G (2), superior,

APOCYNACEAE
Bud contorted Gamopetalous Anthers sagittate Stigma thickened

Nerium oleander - adelfa

Allamanda yellow bell Plumeria kalachuchi Nerium oleander adelfa Thevetia false yellow bell

Rubiaceae Coffee family


(after rubia, name used by Pliny for madder) 630 genera / 10,200 species.

Leaves simple, entire, usually decussate leaves connate stipules, the stipules often with mucilagesecreting colleters usually a cyme, Flowers bisexual, the perianth dichlamydeous, perianth and androecium often 4 5-merous (calyx absent in some), ovary usually inferior Ca (4-5) Co (4-5) A 4-5 G (2) usually inferior

Rubiaceae Coffee family


(after rubia, name used by Pliny for madder) 630 genera / 10,200 species.

worldwide distribution, more concentrated in tropical regions. Cinchona, the source of quinine used to treat malaria, Coffea arabica and other species, the source of coffee,

Pausinystalia johimbe, the source of the sexual stimulant yohimbine,


some timber trees, fruiting plants, dye plants (such as Rubia, madder), and ornamental cultivars (e.g., Pentas, among others).

Lamiaceae (=Labiatae) - Mint family


often aromatic with ethereal oils

(Lamium, gullet, after the shape of the corolla tube or old Latin name used by Pliny). 251 genera / 6,700 species.

with usually 4-sided stems, opposite [or whorled] leaves


verticillaster or thyrse inflorescence [flowers solitary and axillary in some], and zygomorphic [rarely actinomorphic],

usually bilabiate flowers


deeply 4-lobed ovary (by formation of "false septa") and gynobasic style

Ca (5) Co (5) A 4 G (2), superior, hypanthium absent.

Mentha, mint; Ocimum, basil; Rosmarinus, rosemary;

Salvia, sage;
Thymus, thyme

Leaves opposite; stems 4-sided

Inflorescence a thyrse or verticillaster (usu.)

Flowers zygomorphic; corolla sympetalous, bilabiate

carpels 2; style gynobasic

Fruit a schizocarp of nutlets

Ocimum basilicum BASIL

Solanaceae - Nightshade family


genera / 2,950 species.

(Latin for sleeping or comforter, after narcotic properties of some). 94

internal phloem, spiral leaves usually actinomorphic, 5-merous perianth and androecium (corolla plicate in bud), usually bicarpellate, syncarpous gynoecium, and usually numerous ovules per carpel, connivent anthers the fruit a berry, drupe, or capsule. Ca (5) Co (5) A 5 G (2) [(3-5)], superior, hypanthium absent.

Members of the family have mostly worldwide distributions, concentrated in South America. Capsicum (peppers), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Physalis philadelphica (tomatillo), Solanum tuberosum (potato), Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco); alkaloids from various taxa have medicinal properties (e.g., atropine from Atropa belladona), hallucinogenic properties (e.g., Datura, Jimson weed) deadly poisons (e.g., Datura, Solanum spp.) known carcinogens (e.g., Nicotiana tabacum); some used as ornamental cultivars, others are noxious weeds.

Flowers actinomorphic, plicate (in bud)

Flowers actinomorphic, plicate (in bud)

Fruit a berry or capsule

Physalis ixocarpa Tomatillo

Asteraceae (Compositae)
Characteristics: Inflorescence a head (capitulum): subtended by inflorescence bracts: involucral bracts or phyllaries, collectively termed the involucre. Calyx modified as pappus. Stamens syngenesious. K pappus C 5 A (5) G(2), inferior, 1 basal ovule Fruit an achene.

Asteraceae (=Compositae) - Sunflower family


(after Aster, meaning star). 1,528 genera / 22,750 species.

a head (capitulum) subtended by an involucre of phyllaries, --bilabiate, disk, or ray/ligulate, (heads of many taxa a mixture of central disk flowers and peripheral ray flowers), with the calyx, termed a pappus, modified as scales, awns, or capillary bristles (or absent), the androecium syngenesious, inferior ovary with a single, basal ovule, the fruit a multiple of achenes.

Asteraceae (=Compositae) Sunflower family


(after Aster, meaning star). 1,528 genera / 22,750 species.

Ca 0- (pappus) Co (5) [(4)] or (3) in some ray flowers A (5) [(4)] G (2), inferior, hypanthium absent.

Asteraceae: floral variation


Three types of flowers: 1) Bilabiate: zygomorphic (bilateral) with 2 lips 2) Ray (ligulate): zygomorphic (bilateral) with 1 lobe 3) Disk: actinomorphic (radial), usu. 5-lobed

Five types of heads:


1) discoid, with only disk flowers; 2) radiate, with central (bisexual or male) disk flowers and peripheral (female or sterile) ray flowers; 3) ligulate, with all ray flowers (typically with 5-toothed corolla apices);

disk

ligulate / ray

anthers connate

syngenesious

Ray flowers (heads ligulate = all rays)


ligulate corolla

Rafinesquia neomexicana

Malacothrix californica

Disk flower: heads discoid


disk corolla

Chaenactis gabriuscula

Psathyrotes ramosissima

Palafoxia arida

Heads radiate: inner disk & outer ray fls.


disk flowers ray flowers

Encelia farinosa

Xylorhiza orcuttii

Some heads are "chaffy"


ovary

disk flower
chaff : bracts subtending flowers

Encelia californica

Involucre morphology one whorl two whorls many whorls

Senecio vulgaris

Coreopsis maritima

Encelia californica

Involucre morphology
Phyllaries spiny
Phyllaries spiny & squarrose

Circium vulgare

Silybum marianum

Pappus: modified calyx

beak

capillary bristles, borne atop "beak"

capillary bristles: barbellate

capillary bristles: plumose

Pappus: modified calyx

ASTERACEAE
Anthers 3-5, united syngenesious

ASTERACEAE
Gynoecium bicarpellate Uniloculate Inferior Uniovulate Placentation basal Fruit achene with coma or tuft of hair cypsela

Tridax procumbens Chromolaena odorata Chrysanthemum Cyanthillium cinereum Zinnia sp. Cosmos sp.