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Lab Activity 4

Classification of Tissues Martini Chapter 4


Institut Pendidikan Guru Malaysia PJM3106

Tissues
Groups of cells similar in structure and function
Each tissue is then further subdivided into categories.

All organs are made of a combination of different tissues. The four types of tissues
Epithelial Connective Muscle Nerve
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Epithelial Tissue Distinguishing Characteristics


1. Cellularity: Composed almost entirely of cells 2. Polarity: apical and basal surfaces (top and a bottom) 3. Attachment: Supported by connective tissue (basement membrane) 4. Avascular: Contains no blood vessels: obtains nutrients by diffusion 5. Regeneration: Rapidly replaces lost cells by cell division
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Classification of Epithelia
1. First name:
Simple: one layer Stratified: more than one layer Based on the shape of the top layer of cells Squamous (flat) Cuboidal (square) Columnar (rectangle)

2. Second name:

3. Two additional categories


Transitional Pseudostratified
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Classification of Epithelia

Classification of Epithelia
Squamous

Cuboidal

Columnar
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Simple Squamous Epithelium


Single layer of flattened cells with discshaped nuclei and sparse cytoplasm

Simple Squamous Epithelium

Top View

Simple Squamous Epithelium

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Simple Squamous Epithelium


Functions: 1. Diffusion
Alveoli in the respiratory system allows for exchange of O2 and CO2

2. Filtration
Capillaries allow fluid and other substances out and holds blood cells and proteins in

3. Lubrication
Secretes lubricating substances in serosae
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Simple Cuboidal Epithelium


Single layer of cube like cells with large, spherical central nuclei

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Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

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Simple Cuboidal Epithelium


Functions: 1. Secretion
Glands such as the thyroid are composed of simple cuboidal epithelium and secrete hormones ect

2. Absorption
In the kidney, the proximal convoluted tubule is composed of simple cuboidal epithelium and reabsorbs water and other nutrients from the filtered fluid
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Simple Columnar Epithelium


Single layer of tall cells with oval nuclei toward the basal surface
Goblet cells are often found in this layer

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Simple Columnar Epithelium

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Simple Columnar Epithelium

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Simple Columnar Epithelium


Functions 1. Secretion
Example: In the stomach, these cells secrete digestive enzymes

2. Absorption
Example: In the intestine, these cells absorb nutrients

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Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium


Single layer of cells with different heights; some do not reach the free surface Nuclei are seen at different levels May be ciliated (PCCE) or non-ciliated

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Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

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Pseudostratified Columnar Ciliated Epithelium (PCCE)

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Pseudostratified Columnar Ciliated Epithelium (PCCE)


Functions 1. Protection
Example: Lines the upper respiratory tract. The cilia sweep debris toward the throat

2. Secretion
Example: May contain goblet cells (unicellular glands) that secrete mucus

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Stratified Squamous Epithelium


Composed of several layers of cells
Top layer flat Bottom layers any shape

Function in protection of underlying areas subjected to abrasion

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Stratified Squamous Epithelium


Non-keratinized
Composed of several layers of cells
Top layer flat Bottom layers any shape

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Stratified Squamous Epithelium Non-Keratinized

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Stratified Squamous Epithelium Non-Keratinized


Functions 1. Physical protection against abrasion and
pathogens Non-Keratinized is associated with moist areas Mouth Throat Esophagus Anus Vagina
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Stratified Squamous Epithelium Keratinized


Looks flakey on the top

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Stratified Squamous Epithelium Keratinized

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Stratified Squamous Epithelium Keratinized


Functions 1. Physical Protection
Found only in the epidermis of the skin Keratin is a protein that helps strengthen the cells against abrasion

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Transitional Epithelium
Several cell layers, basal cells are cuboidal Apical cells are dome shaped when not stretched Apical cells are flat when stretched Only found in Urinary System Functions: 1. Allows expansion and recoil after stretching
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Transitional Epithelium

Distended bladder

Empty bladder
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Stratified Cuboidal and Columnar


Typically two cell layers thick Rare Functions:
1. Secretion Found in some sweat and mammary glands

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Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium

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Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium

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Stratified Columnar Epithelium

Limited distribution in the body


To tell the difference between this and pseudostratified columnar, look at the nucleus. The nuclei are lined up in a straight row

Function
1. Protection Found in the pharynx, male urethra, lining some glandular ducts, and anus

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Stratified Columnar Epithelium

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Stratified Columnar Epithelium

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Connective Tissue
4 Types 1. Connective Tissue Proper 2. Bone 3. Blood 4. Cartilage

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Connective Tissue Features


1. Specialized cells 2. Matrix: Nonliving material between the cells that makes up most of the volume (ground substance + fibers) Extracellular fibers Ground substance: Composed chiefly of interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins, and proteoglycans Specific composition varies between tissues (Blood=fluid, Cartilage=gel like, Bone=Solid)
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Connective Tissue Fibers


Collagen Fibers: Fibrous protein molecules
Extremely tough High tensile strength Strongest type of fibers in connective tissue.

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Connective Tissue Fibers


Elastic Fibers: Form branching networks
Elastin: a rubber like protein that allow it to act like a rubber band and snap back to its original shape after it is stretched

Reticular Fibers: Forming delicate networks Fine collagenous fibers (with a different chemical structure) branch extensively Surround small blood vessels and support soft tissue organs
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Cells of Connective Tissue Proper


1. Fibroblasts: Secrete the matrix 2. Macrophages: Scavenger cells that engulf pathogens or damaged cells 3. Adipocytes: Fat cells 4. Mesenchymal Cells: Stem cells 5. Mast cells: Stimulate local inflammation: contain histamine and heparin

6. Lymphocytes/microphages: WBC involved in immunity

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Areolar Connective Tissue (Loose)


Gel like matrix Contains all 3 fiber types Functions:
1. Wraps and cushions organs 2. Holds and conveys tissue fluid

Locations:
1. Under epithelial tissues 2. Packages organs 3. Surrounds capillaries
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Areolar Connective Tissue (Loose)


Fibroblast Collagen fiber Macrophage

Elastic fiber

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Adipose Tissue (Loose)


Function:
1. Storage of lipid molecules 2. Insulation

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Reticular Connective Tissue (Loose)


Network of reticular fibers in a loose ground substance Functions
1. Soft internal skeleton that supports other cell types

Locations
1. Lymph nodes 2. Bone marrow 3. Spleen
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Reticular Connective Tissue (Loose)

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Dense Regular Connective Tissue


Primarily parallel collagen fibers Major cell type: fibroblast Functions:
1. Withstands great tensile stress pulling in one direction

Locations:
1. Tendons 2. Ligaments 3. Aponeuroses
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Dense Regular Connective Tissue

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Dense Irregular Connective Tissue


Irregularly arranged collagen fibers Functions:
1. Withstands tension exerted in many directions 2. Provides structural strength

Locations:
1. Dermis of skin 2. Submucosa of digestive tract 3. Fibrous capsules of organs and joints
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Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

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Elastic Connective Tissue (Dense)


Dense regular CT dominated by elastic fibers Functions: 1. Stabilizes positions of vertebrae and penis 2. Cushions and permits expansion and contraction of organs Locations: 1. Between vertebrae 2. Ligaments supporting penis, transitional epithelia 3. Blood vessel walls
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Elastic Connective Tissue (Dense)

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Blood: Hematopoietic Tissue


Functions:
1.Transportation 2.Immunology 3.Hemostasis

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Bone: Osseous Tissue


Functions:
1.Lever for muscles 2.Mineral storage 3.protection

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Hyaline Cartilage
Functions:
1.Stiff but flexible support 2.Reduces friction between bony surfaces

Locations:
1.Articular surfaces 2.Larynx 3.Trachea 4.Nasal septum
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Elastic Cartilage
Functions:
1. Support, but flexible

Locations:
1. Ear 2. Epiglottis

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Fibrocartilage
Functions:
1. Resists compression 2. Prevents bone-tobone contact

Locations:
1. Meniscus of knee 2. Pubic symphysis 3. Intervertebral discs

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Skeletal Muscle
Voluntary Multiple peripheral nuclei Striated

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Skeletal Muscle: Peripheral Nuclei

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Cardiac Muscle: Arrow: Intercalated Discs


One or two central nuclei Striated Involuntary Found only in the heart

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Smooth Muscle
One central nuclei No striations Involuntary Found in hollow organs, blood vessels
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Nervous Tissue

Functions: 1. Neurons: Electrical signaling 2. Glial cells: Support of neurons

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Nervous Tissue

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The End

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