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Lecture 8:

BIPOLAR JUNCTION
TRANSISTORS
Semester II
2010/2011
Code:
EEE2213
BJT STRUCTURE
Basic structure of the bipolar junction transistor (BJT) determines its
operating characteristics.
Constructed with 3 doped semiconductor regions called emitter, base,
and collector, which separated by two pn junctions.
2 types of BJT;
(1) npn: Two n regions separated by a p region
(2) pnp: Two p regions separated by an n region.
BIPOLAR:
refers to the use
of both holes &
electrons as
current carriers
in the transistor
structure.
Base-emitter junction: the pn junction joining the base region & the
emitter region.
Base-collector junction: the pn junction joining the base region & the
collector region.
A wire lead connects to each of the 3 regions. These leads labeled as;
E: emitter
B: base
C: collector
BASE REGION: lightly doped, & very thin
EMITTER REGION: heavily doped
COLLECTOR REGION: moderately doped
Standard BJT Symbols
BASIC BJT OPERATION
For a BJT to operate properly as an amplifier, the two pn junctions
must be correctly biased with external dc voltages.
Figure: shows a bias arrangement for npn BJTs for operation as an
amplifier.
In both cases, BE junction is forward-biased & the BC junction is
reverse-biased. called forward-reverse bias.
Look at this one circuit as two separate
circuits, the base-emitter(left side) circuit and
the collector-emitter(right side) circuit. Note
that the emitter leg serves as a conductor for
both circuits. The amount of current flow in
the base-emitter circuit controls the amount of
current that flows in the collector circuit.
Small changes in base-emitter current
yields a large change in collector-current.
The heavily doped n-type emitter region has a very high density of
conduction-band (free) electrons.
These free electrons easily diffuse through the forward-based BE
junction into the lightly doped & very thin p-type base region
(indicated by wide arrow).
The base has a low density of holes, which are the majority carriers
(represented by the white circles).
A small percentage of the total number of free electrons injected into
the base region recombine with holes & move as valence electrons
through the base region & into the emitter region as hole current
(indicated by red arrows).
BJT operation showing electron flow.
When the electrons that have recombined with holes as valence
electrons leave the crystalline structure of the base, they become free
electrons in the metallic base lead & produce the external base
current.
Most of the free electrons that have entered the base do not recombine
with holes because the base is very thin.
As the free electrons move toward the reverse-biased BC junction,
they are swept across into the collector region by the attraction of the
positive collector supply voltage.
The free electrons move through the collector region, into the external
circuit, & then return into the emitter region along with the base
current.
The emitter current is slightly greater than the collector current
because of the small base current that splits off from the total current
injected into the base region from the emitter.
Transistor Currents
The directions of the currents in both npn and pnp transistors and their
schematic symbol are shown in Figure (a) and (b). Arrow on the emitter
of the transistor symbols points in the direction of conventional
current. These diagrams show that the emitter current (I
E
) is the sum of
the collector current (I
C
) and the base current (I
B
), expressed as follows:
I
E
= I
C
+ I
B
BJT CHARACTERISTICS &
PARAMETERS
Figure shows the proper bias
arrangement for npn
transistor for active
operation as an amplifier.
Notice that the base-emitter
(BE) junction is forward-
biased by V
BB
and the base-
collector (BC) junction is
reverse-biased by V
CC
. The dc
current gain of a transistor is
the ratio of the dc collector
current (I
C
) to the dc base
current (I
B
), and called dc beta
(|
DC
).
|
DC
= I
C
/I
B
The ratio of the dc collector current (I
C
)
to the dc emitter current (I
E
) is the dc
alpha.



DC
= I
C
/I
E
Ex 4-1 Determine
DC
and I
E
for a transistor where I
B
= 50 A and I
C
= 3.65 mA.
Ex 4-1 Determine
DC
and I
E
for a transistor where I
B
= 50 A and I
C
= 3.65 mA.
73
50
65 . 3
= = =
A
mA
I
I
B
C
DC

|
I
E
= I
C
+ I
B
= 3.65 mA + 50 A = 3.70 mA
986 . 0
70 . 3
65 . 3
= = =
mA
mA
I
I
E
C
DC
o
The collector current is
determined by
multiplying the base
current by beta.
Thus, I
C
=
DC
* I
B
Analysis of this transistor circuit to predict the dc voltages and currents
requires use of Ohms law, Kirchhoffs voltage law and the beta for the
transistor;
Application of these laws begins with the base circuit to determine the
amount of base current. Using Kichhoffs voltage law, subtract the V
BE

=0.7 V, and the remaining voltage is dropped across R
B .
Thus, V
R
B

= V
B
B
- V
B
E
.
Determining the current for the base with this information is a matter of
applying of Ohms law. V
R
B
/R
B
= I
B

What we ultimately
determine by use of
Kirchhoffs voltage law
for series circuits is that,
in the base circuit, V
BB
is
distributed across the
base-emitter junction
and R
B
in the base
circuit. In the collector
circuit we determine that
V
CC
is distributed
proportionally across
R
C
and the
transistor(V
CE
).
BJT Circuit Analysis
There are three key dc voltages and three key dc currents to be
considered. Note that these measurements are important for
troubleshooting.
I
B
: dc base current
I
E
: dc emitter current
I
C
: dc collector current
V
BE
: dc voltage across
base-emitter junction
V
CB
: dc voltage across
collector-base junction
V
CE
: dc voltage from
collector to emitter
When the base-emitter junction is forward-biased,
V
BE
0.7 V
V
R
B
= I
B
R
B
: by Ohms law
I
B
R
B
= V
BB
V
BE
: substituting for V
RB
I
B
= (V
BB
V
BE
) / R
B
: solving for I
B
V
CE
= V
CC
V
Rc
: voltage at the collector with respect to the
grounded emitter
V
Rc
= I
C
R
C

V
CE
= V
CC
I
C
R
C
: voltage at the
collector with
respect to the emitter

The voltage across the reverse-biased
collector-base junction
V
CB
= V
CE
V
BE
where I
C
=
DC
I
B
Ex 4-2 Determine I
B
, I
C
, I
E
, V
BE
, V
CE
, and V
CB
in the circuit of Figure. The
transistor has a
DC
= 150.
Ex 4-2 Determine I
B
, I
C
, I
E
, V
BE
, V
CE
, and V
CB
in the circuit of Figure. The
transistor has a
DC
= 150.
When the base-emitter junction is forward-biased,
V
BE
0.7 V
I
B
= (V
BB
V
BE
) / R
B
= (5 V 0.7 V) / 10 k = 430 A

I
C
=
DC
I
B

= (150)(430 A)
= 64.5 mA
I
E
= I
C
+ I
B

= 64.5 mA + 430 A
= 64.9 mA
V
CE
= V
CC
I
C
R
C

= 10 V (64.5 mA)(100 )
= 3.55 V
V
CB
= V
CE
V
BE

= 3.55 V 0.7 V
= 2.85 V
Since the collector is at a higher
voltage than the base, the collector-
base junction is reverse-biased.
Gives a graphical
illustration of the
relationship of collector
current and V
CE
with
specified amounts of
base current. With
greater increases of V
CC
,
V
CE
continues to increase
until it reaches
breakdown, but the
current remains about the
same in the linear region
from 0.7V to the
breakdown voltage.
Collector Characteristic Curves
Sketch an ideal family of collector curves for the circuit in Figure for I
B
= 5 A to 25 A in 5
A increment. Assume
DC
= 100 and that V
CE
does not exceed breakdown.
Sketch an ideal family of collector curves for the circuit in Figure for I
B
= 5 A to 25 A in 5
A increment. Assume
DC
= 100 and that V
CE
does not exceed breakdown.
I
C
=
DC
I
B

I
B
I
C
5 A 0.5 mA
10 A 1.0 mA
15 A 1.5 mA
20 A 2.0 mA
25 A 2.5 mA
Cutoff
With no I
B ,
the transistor is in the cutoff region and just as the
name implies there is practically no current flow in the
collector part of the circuit. With the transistor in a cutoff state,
the full V
CC
can be measured across the collector and
emitter(V
CE
).
Cutoff: Collector leakage current (I
CEO
) is extremely small and is usually
neglected. Base-emitter and base-collector junctions are reverse-biased.
Saturation
Once V
CE
reaches its maximum value, the transistor is said to be in
saturation.
Saturation: As I
B
increases due to increasing V
BB
, I
C
also increases and V
CE

decreases due to the increased voltage drop across R
C
. When the transistor reaches
saturation, I
C
can increase no further regardless of further increase in I
B
. Base-
emitter and base-collector junctions are forward-biased.
DC Load Line
The dc load line graphically illustrates I
C(sat)
and cutoff for a transistor.
DC load line on a family of collector characteristic curves illustrating the
cutoff and saturation conditions.
Active
region of
the
transistors
operation.
Ex 4-4 Determine whether or not the transistors in Figure is in
saturation. Assume V
CE(sat)
= 0.2 V.
mA
k
V V
R
V V
I
C
sat CE CC
sat C
8 . 9
0 . 1
2 . 0 10
) (
) (
=
O

=
Ex 4-4 Determine whether or not the transistors in Figure is in
saturation. Assume V
CE(sat)
= 0.2 V.
First, determine I
C(sat)
mA mA I I
mA
k
V
k
V V
R
V V
I
B DC C
B
BE BB
B
5 . 11 ) 23 . 0 )( 50 (
23 . 0
10
3 . 2
10
7 . 0 3
= = =
=
O
=
O

=
|
Now, see if I
B
is large enough to produce I
C(sat).

Thus, I
C
greater than
I
C(sat)
. Therefore, the
transistor is saturated.
Maximum Transistor Ratings
A transistor has limitations on its operation. The product of V
CE
and I
C
cannot be maximum at the same time. If V
CE
is
maximum, I
C
can be calculated as
CE
D
C
V
P
I
(max)
=
Ex 4-5 A certain transistor is to be operated with V
CE
= 6 V. If
its maximum power rating is 250 mW, what is the most collector
current that it can handle?
mA
V
mW
V
P
I
CE
D
C
7 . 41
6
250
(max)
= = =
Ex 4-6 The transistor in Figure has the following maximum ratings: P
D(max)
= 800
mW, V
CE(max)
= 15 V, and I
C(max)
= 100 mA. Determine the maximum value to which V
CC

can be adjusted without exceeding a rating. Which rating would be exceeded first?
First, find I
B
so that you can determine I
C
.
The voltage drop across R
C
is.
P
D
= V
CE(max)
I
C
= (15V)(19.5mA) = 293 mW
V
CE(max)
will be exceeded first because the entire supply voltage, V
CC
will
be dropped across the transistor.
V
Rc
= I
C
R
C
= (19.5 mA)(1.0 k) = 19.5 V
V
Rc
= V
CC
V
CE
when V
CE
= V
CE(max)
= 15 V
V
CC(max)
= V
CE(max)
+ V
Rc
= 15 V + 19.5 V = 34.5 V
mA A I I
A
k
V V
R
V V
I
B DC C
B
BE BB
B
5 . 19 ) 195 )( 100 (
195
22
7 . 0 5
= = =
=
O

=
|

Ex 4-6 The transistor in Figure has the following maximum ratings: P


D(max)
= 800
mW, V
CE(max)
= 15 V, and I
C(max)
= 100 mA. Determine the maximum value to which V
CC

can be adjusted without exceeding a rating. Which rating would be exceeded first?
Derating P
D(max)
P
D(max)
is usually specified at 25C.
At higher temperatures, P
D(max)
is less.
Datasheets often give derating factors for determining P
D(max)
at
any temperature above 25C.
Ex 4-7
A certain transistor has a P
D(max)
of 1 mW at 25C. The derating
factor is 5 mW/ C. What is the P
D(max)
at a temperature of
70C?

Transistor Datasheet

Refer Figure 4-20 (a partial datasheet for the 2N3904 npn
transistor).
The maximum collector-emitter voltage (V
CEO
) is 40V.
The CEO subscript indicates that the voltage is measured from
collector to emitter with the base open. V
CEO
= V
CE(MAX)
The maximum collector current is 200 mA.
* Other characteristics can be referred from the datasheet.
A 2N3904 transistor is used in the circuit. Determine the maximum value to which V
CC

can be adjusted without exceeding a rating. Which rating would be exceeded first?
A 2N3904 transistor is used in the circuit. Determine the maximum value to which V
CC

can be adjusted without exceeding a rating. Which rating would be exceeded first?
P
D(max)
= 800 mW
V
CE(max)
= 15 V
I
C(max)
= 100 mA.
I
B
=195m A
I
C
= b
DC
I
B
=19.5mA
V
CC(max)
= V
CE(max)
+ V
Rc
= 40 V + 19.5 V = 59.5 V
P
D
= V
CE(max)
I
C
= (40V)(19.5mA) = 780 mW
However at the max value of V
CE
, the power dissipation is

Power Dissipation exceeds the maximum of 645 mW specified on the
datasheet.
THE BJT AS AN AMPLIFIER
Amplification of a relatively
small ac voltage can be had by
placing the ac signal source in
the base circuit.
Recall that small changes in the
base current circuit causes large
changes in collector current
circuit.
The ac emitter current : I
e
I
c
=V
b
/r
e
The ac collector voltage : V
c
=I
c
R
c
Since I
c
I
e
, the ac collector voltage : V
c
I
e
R
c
The ratio of V
c
to V
b
is the ac voltage gain : A
v
=V
c
/V
b
Substituting I
e
R
c
for V
c
and I
e
r
e
for V
b
: A
v
=V
c
/V
b
I
c
R
c
/I
e
r
e
The I
e
terms cancel : A
v
R
c
/r
e
Ex 4-9 Determine the voltage gain and the ac output
voltage in Figure if r
e
= 50 .
The voltage gain : A
v
R
c
/r
e
= 1.0 k/50 = 20
The ac output voltage : A
v
V
b
= (20)(100 mV) = 2 V
THE BJT AS A SWITCH
A transistor when used as a switch is simply being biased so that it
is in cutoff (switched off) or saturation (switched on). Remember
that the V
CE
in cutoff is V
CC
and 0V in saturation.
Conditions in Cutoff & Saturation
C
sat CE CC
sat C
R
V V
I
) (
) (

=
DC
sat C
B
I
I
|
) (
(min)
=
A transistor is in the cutoff region when the base-emitter junction is not
forward-biased. All of the current are zero, and V
CE
is equal to V
CC

V
CE(cutoff)
= V
CC

When the base-emitter junction is forward-biased and there is enough base
current to produce a maximum collector current, the transistor is saturated.
The formula for collector saturation current is
The minimum value of base current
needed to produce saturation is

Ex 4-10 (a) For the transistor circuit in Figure, what is V
CE
when V
IN
= 0 V?
(b) What minimum value of I
B
is required to saturate this transistor if
DC
is
200? Neglect V
CE(sat)
.
(c) Calculate the maximum value of R
B
when V
IN
= 5 V.
Ex 4-10 (a) For the transistor circuit in Figure, what is V
CE
when V
IN
= 0 V?
(b) What minimum value of I
B
is required to saturate this transistor if
DC
is
200? Neglect V
CE(sat)
.
(c) Calculate the maximum value of R
B
when V
IN
= 5 V.
A
mA
I
I
mA
k
V
R
V
I
DC
sat C
B
C
CC
sat C

|
50
200
10
10
0 . 1
10
) (
(min)
) (
= = =
=
O
= =
O = = = k
A
V
I
V
R
B
R
B
B
86
50
3 . 4
(min)
(max)

(a) When V
IN
= 0 V
V
CE
= V
CC
= 10 V

(b) Since V
CE(sat)
is neglected,
(c) When the transistor is on, V
BE
0.7 V.
V
R
B
= V
IN
V
BE
5 V 0.7 V = 4.3 V
Calculate the maximum value of R
B
Transistor Construction
There are two types of transistors:
pnp
npn


The terminals are labeled:
E - Emitter
B - Base
C - Collector
pnp
npn
42
Transistor Operation
With the external sources, V
EE
and V
CC
, connected as shown:
The emitter-base junction is forward biased
The base-collector junction is reverse biased
43
Currents in a Transistor
The collector current is comprised of two
currents:
B
I
C
I
E
I + =
minority
CO
I
majority
C
I
C
I + =
Emitter current is the sum of the collector and
base currents:
44
Common-Base Configuration
The base is common to both input (emitterbase) and
output (collectorbase) of the transistor.
45
Common-Base Amplifier
Input Characteristics
This curve shows the relationship
between of input current (I
E
) to input
voltage (V
BE
) for three output voltage
(V
CB
) levels.
46
This graph demonstrates
the output current (I
C
) to
an output voltage (V
CB
) for
various levels of input
current (I
E
).
Common-Base Amplifier
Output Characteristics
47

Operating Regions
Active Operating range of the
amplifier.
Cutoff The amplifier is basically
off. There is voltage, but little
current.
Saturation The amplifier is full on.
There is current, but little voltage.
48
E
I
C
I ~
Silicon) (for V 0.7
BE
V =
Approximations
Emitter and collector currents:
Base-emitter voltage:
49
Ideally: o = 1
In reality: o is between 0.9 and 0.998
Alpha (o)
Alpha (o) is the ratio of I
C
to I
E
:



E
I
C
I
=
dc
Alpha (o) in the AC mode:
E
I
C
I

ac
=
50
Transistor Amplification
Voltage Gain:


V 50 k 5 ma 10
mA 10
10mA
20
200mV
= = =
= ~
~
= = = =
) )( ( R
L
I
L
V
i
I
L
I
E
I
C
I
i
R
i
V
i
I
E
I
Currents and Voltages:
51
250
200mV
50V
= = =
i
V
L
V
v
A
CommonEmitter Configuration
The emitter is common to both input
(base-emitter) and output (collector-
emitter).

The input is on the base and the
output is on the collector.
52
Common-Emitter Characteristics
Collector Characteristics Base Characteristics
53
Common-Emitter Amplifier Currents
Ideal Currents

I
E
= I
C
+ I
B
I
C
= o I
E

Actual Currents

I
C
= o I
E
+ I
CBO

When I
B
= 0 A the transistor is in cutoff, but there is some minority
current flowing called I
CEO
.
A 0 =

=
B
I
CBO
CEO

I
I
1
where I
CBO
= minority collector current
54
I
CBO
is usually so small that it can be ignored, except in
high
power transistors and in high temperature
environments.
Beta (|)
In DC mode:
In AC mode:
| represents the amplification factor of a transistor. (| is
sometimes referred to as h
fe
, a term used in transistor modeling
calculations)
B
C
I
I
=
dc
constant ac =
A
A
=
CE
V
B
C
I
I
|
55
Determining | from a Graph
Beta (|)
108
A 25
mA 2.7

7.5 V DC
CE
=

=
=
100
A 10
mA 1
A) 20 A (30
mA) 2.2 mA (3.2

7.5 V
AC
CE
=
=

=
=
56
Relationship between amplification factors | and o
1

+
=
1

=
Beta (|)
Relationship Between Currents
B C
I I =
B E
1)I ( I + =
57
CommonCollector Configuration
The input is on the
base and the output is
on the emitter.
58
CommonCollector Configuration
The characteristics are
similar to those of the
common-emitter
configuration, except the
vertical axis is I
E
.
59
V
CE
is at maximum and I
C
is at
minimum (I
Cmax
= I
CEO
) in the cutoff
region.

I
C
is at maximum and V
CE
is at
minimum (V
CE max
= V
CEsat
= V
CEO
) in
the saturation region.

The transistor operates in the active
region between saturation and cutoff.
Operating Limits for Each Configuration
60
Power Dissipation
Common-collector:
C CB Cmax
I V P =
C CE Cmax
I V P =
E CE Cmax
I V P =
Common-base:
Common-emitter:
61
Transistor Specification Sheet
62
Transistor Specification Sheet
63
Transistor Testing
Curve Tracer
Provides a graph of the characteristic curves.

DMM
Some DMMs measure |
DC
or h
FE
.

Ohmmeter
64
Transistor Terminal Identification
65