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OSI MODEL

Suresh Sharma
MCSE, CCNA, CCNP, CCSA, CCSE Certified

Networking

Netprog: OSI Reference Model

Network
... communication system for connecting end-systems End-systems a.k.a. hosts PCs, workstations dedicated computers network components
Netprog: OSI Reference Model

Multiaccess vs. Point-to-point


Multiaccess

means shared medium.

many end-systems share the same physical communication resources (wire, frequency, ...) There must be some arbitration mechanism.
Point-to-point

only 2 systems involved no doubt about where data came from !


Netprog: OSI Reference Model

Multiaccess

Point-to-point

Netprog: OSI Reference Model

LAN - Local Area Network


connects

computers that are physically close together ( < 1 mile).


high speed multi-access

Technologies:

Ethernet 10 Mbps, 100Mbps Token Ring 16 Mbps FDDI 100 Mbps


Netprog: OSI Reference Model

WAN - Wide Area Network


connects

computers that are physically far apart. long-haul network.


typically slower than a LAN. typically less reliable than a LAN. point-to-point

Technologies:

telephone lines Satellite communications


Netprog: OSI Reference Model

MAN - Metropolitan Area Network


Larger

WAN

than a LAN and smaller than a

- example: campus-wide network - multi-access network


Technologies:

coaxial cable microwave


Netprog: OSI Reference Model

Internetwork
Connection

of 2 or more distinct (possibly dissimilar) networks. Requires some kind of network device to facilitate the connection.

Net A
Netprog: OSI Reference Model

Net B

THE NEED FOR STANDARDS

Over the past couple of decades many of the networks that were built used different hardware and software implementations, as a result they were incompatible and it became difficult for networks using different specifications to communicate with each other. To address the problem of networks being incompatible and unable to communicate with each other, the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) researched various network schemes. The ISO recognised there was a need to create a NETWORK MODEL that would help vendors create interoperable network implementations.

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) is a set of internationally recognized, non-proprietary standards for networking and for operating system involved in networking functions.
An open system is a set of protocols that allow two different systems to communicate regardless of their underlying architecture. Open Systems Interconnection model is fundamental to all communications between network devices It is now the theoretical model for how communication takes place between network devices.

The OSI reference model is an arbitrary hierarchical stratification (layering) of computer networking functions. The stratification consists of seven layers.

There are various ways of implementing the protocols at any given layer. OSI is a CONCEPTUAL model.

OSI Model allows complete interoperability between incompatible systems.

The communication is governed by an agreed upon series of rules and conventions called PROTOCOLS.

The OSI Reference Model


The OSI reference model consists of seven layers, not including layer 8, the end users application, and layer 0 the physical transmission media.

8. O/S or User Application 7. Application Layer 6. 5. 4. 3. 2. Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer

1. Physical Layer 0. Physical Transmission Media

Design Issues for the Layers


Addressing

Error

Control Flow Control Multiplexing Routing

THE SEVEN OSI REFERENCE MODEL LAYERS

LAYER 1: PHYSICAL

The physical layer deals with the physical characteristics of the transmission medium. It defines the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional specifications for activating, maintaining, and deactivating the physical link between end systems. Such characteristics as voltage levels, timing of voltage changes, physical data rates, maximum transmission distances, physical connectors, and other similar attributes are defined by physical layer specifications. Examples :- EIA/TIA-232, RJ45, NRZ.

Converts bits into electronic signals for outgoing messages


Converts electronic signals into bits for incoming messages This layer manages the interface between the the computer and the network medium (coax, twisted pair, etc.) This layer tells the driver software for the MAU (media attachment unit, ex. network interface cards (NICs, modems, etc.)) what needs to be sent across the medium

The bottom layer of the OSI model

Physical Layer
Responsibility:

cont

transmission of raw bits over a communication channel.


Issues:

mechanical and electrical interfaces time per bit ,Distances Transmission mode topology

Layer 2 : DATA LAYER


Handles special data frames (packets) between the Network layer and the Physical layer
At the receiving end, this layer packages raw data from the physical layer into data frames for delivery to the Network layer At the sending end this layer handles conversion of data into raw formats that can be handled by the Physical Layer

The data link layer provides access to the networking media and it enables the data to locate its intended destination on a network. It provides reliable transit of data across a physical link by using the Media Access Control (MAC) addresses. This layer uses the MAC address to define a hardware or data link address in order for multiple stations to share the same medium and still uniquely identify each other. Concerned with network topology, network access, error notification, ordered delivery of frames, and flow control. Examples :- Ethernet, Frame Relay, FDDI.

Data Link Control

Responsibility:
provide an error-free communication link Hop-to-hop delivery

Issues: framing (dividing data into chunks)


header

& trailer bits

Addressing

error notification, ordered delivery of frames,

and flow control


10110110101 01100010011 10110000001

LAYER 3: NETWORK
Defines

end-to-end delivery of packets. Defines logical addressing so that any endpoint can be identified. Defines how routing works and how routes are learned so that the packets can be delivered. The network layer also defines how to fragment a packet into smaller packets to accommodate different media. Routers , IP address

Handles addressing messages for delivery, Responsible for deciding how to route transmissions between computers

This layer also handles the decisions needed to get data from one point to the next point along a network path i.e source to destination delivery.

This layer also handles packet switching and network congestion control

The Network Layer


Responsibilities:

path selection between end-systems (routing). subnet flow control. fragmentation & reassembly translation between different network types.

Issues:

packet headers virtual circuits

LAYER 4: TRANSPORT
The

transport layer regulates information flow to ensure process to- process delivery between host applications reliably and accurately. transport layer segments data from the sending host's system and reassembles the data into a data stream on the receiving host's system.
4 protocols include TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol).

The

Layer

Manages the flow of data between parties by segmenting long data streams into smaller data chunks (based on allowed packet size for a given transmission medium)

Reassembles chunks into their original sequence at the receiving end

Provides acknowledgements of successful transmissions and requests resends for packets which arrive with errors

The Transport Layer


Responsibilities:

provides virtual end-to-end links between peer processes. end-to-end flow control
Issues:

Segmentation and reassembly error detection reliable communication

LAYER 5: SESSION LAYER

The session layer defines how to start, control and end conversations (called sessions) between applications.
This includes the control and management of multiple bidirectional messages using dialogue control. It also synchronizes dialogue between two hosts' presentation layers and manages their data exchange. Examples :- SQL, ASP(AppleTalk Session Protocol).

Enables two networked resources to hold ongoing communications (called to exchange data for the duration of the session responsible for initiating, maintaining and terminating sessions a session) across a network Responsible for security and access control to session information (via session participant identification) Responsible for synchronization services
(checkpoints)

The Session Layer


Responsibilities:

establishes, manages, and terminates sessions between applications. service location lookup

LAYER 6: PRESENTATION
The

presentation layer ensures that the information that the application layer of one system sends out is readable by the application layer of another system.
with Semantics and syntax of the information

Concerned

Provides

encryption and compression of data. Examples :- JPEG, MPEG, ASCII, EBCDIC, HTML.

Manages data-format information for networked communications (the networks translator) For outgoing messages, it converts data into a generic format for network transmission; for incoming messages, it converts data from the generic network format to a format that the receiving application can understand. If necessary, the presentation layer
translates between multiple data formats by using a common format.

This layer is also responsible for certain protocol conversions, data encryption/decryption, or data compression/decompression.

The Presentation Layer


Responsibilities:

data encryption data compression data conversion

LAYER 7: APPLICATION

The top layer of the OSI model

Provides a set of interfaces for sending and receiving applications to gain access to and use network services, such as: networked file transfer, message handling and database query processing

The

application layer is the OSI layer that is closest to the user.

It

provides network access to the user. It differs from the other layers in that it does not provide services to any other OSI layer, but rather, only to applications outside the OSI model. Examples of such applications are spreadsheet programs, word processing programs, and bank terminal programs.

Sending Computer
User Application

Receiving Computer
User Application

7 Application

7 Application

6 Presentation
5 Session
Transmission Media

6 Presentation
5 Session

4 Transport
3 Network

4 Transport
3 Network

2 Data Link
1 Physical

2 Data Link
1 Physical

Layering & Headers


Each

layer needs to add some control information to the data in order to do its job. This information is typically appended to the data before being given to the lower layer. Once the lower layers deliver the the data and control information - the peer layer uses the control information.

Headers
Process DATA Process

Transport

DATA

Transport

Network

H H

DATA

Network

Data Link

H H H

DATA

Data Link

What are the headers?


Physical: no header - just a bunch of bits. Data Link:
address of the receiving endpoints address of the sending endpoint length of the data checksum.

Network layer header examples


type

of service length of the data packet identifier fragment number time to live

protocol header checksum source network address destination network address

Network Software
Protocol Hierarchies

Layers,

protocols, and interfaces.

Summary
Data-Link:

communication between machines on the same network. communication between machines on possibly different networks. communication between processes (running on machines on possibly different networks).

Network:

Transport:

Protocol Hierarchies

Services to Protocols Relationship


The

relationship between a service and a protocol.

Reference Models

The OSI reference model.

Reference Models

Hybrid Model
The

hybrid reference

A Critique of the OSI Model and Protocols


Why

OSI did not take over the world Bad timing Bad technology Bad implementations Bad politics

Bad Timing
The

apocalypse of the two elephants.