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ME623-Two Phase Flow (Part-A)

Dr. Sarit Kumar Das Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras

1. Boiling a) b) c) d)

f) g) h)

General features Nucleation and bubble dynamics Pool boiling heat transfer Critical heat flux in pool boiling Features of two-phase flow Pressure drop in two-phase flow Heat transfer in flow boiling Critical heat flux in flow boiling

2. Condensation
a) Nusselts theory of condensation b) Deviations from Nusselts theory c) Condensation on horizontal tubes and tube banks d) Condensation inside tubes e) Turbulent intube condensation f) Flooding of condensers g) Condensation in horizontal tubes gravity and shear dominated regimes

Heat transfer in condensation and boiling K. Stephan Boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow Tong and Tang Two-phase flow and Heat Transfer P.B. Whally Handbook of Multiphase Systems G. Hetsroni Process Heat Transfer Hewitt, Shires and Bott Convective Boiling and Condensation J.G. Collier

Existing notions about two-phase heat transfer

1. It is empirical. 2. It is difficult. 3. Prediction is poor. 4. It is less important.

All the above notions are incorrect, but one can say
1. 2. 3. 4. The physics is still being discovered, to that extent empirical. Definitely more complex than single phase flow, but it is possible to visualize and develop understanding. Predictions and influencing parameters are becoming improved. It is more important for applications (Ex: power, process, space, nuclear etc.). In this course we will stress on understanding of the process and not mugging up empirical formulae

Pool boiling
From practical (measurement) convenience the driving temperature difference is taken as

T = TW TS and not TW TL
The heat transfer co-efficient depends on flow regime

h = C1 T 1 / 4 For laminar flow h = C2 T 1/ 3 q T = Now q = h T h

For laminar flow For turbulent flow

q h = C1 h

1/ 4

1 1/ 5 h5 / 4 = C1 q1 / 4 h = C1 q
For turbulent flow

1/ 4 h = C1 q 2

Nucleate Boiling

h =C3 T3
1 h =C3 q3 / 4

The famous Nukiyama curve gives the different regimes of pool boiling

The point C called Leidenfrost point The point A called burn out (it need not really burn out)

Flow boiling
1. 2. 3. 4. The pressure changes and hence the Tsat also.

The flow condition influence the boiling process which in turn is influenced by pressure.

The quality continuously vary from 0 to 1.

There is no uniform pattern.

h = Cq m f (n)
C depends on fluid propertier



For convective (3/4 for nucleate)

S= 0.6 to 0.8 (0.1 to o.3 nucleate)