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Electric Circuit: It is the path in which the electric current flows.

OHM s LAW: For any circuit the current is directly proportional to the emf and inversely proportional to the resistance. i.e. I = E/R Resistance in a series circuit:

By Ohms law, R = E / I. If the voltage across R1, R2, R3 are E1, E2, E3, it is seen that E1= IR1, E2= R2I and E3= R3 I. Thus, E= E1+E2+E3 E=IR1+ER2+ER3 I (R1+R2+R3) E/I= R1+R2+R3 R=R1+R2+R3. In a series circuit the current is the same in all parts of the circuit The total voltage is equals the sum of the voltages across each resistance in the circuit. The total resistance equals the sum of the resistances of individual parts. A break in series circuit stops current.

Examples for series connections: Cells in torchlight, car batteries, etc. Cluster of mini lamps used for decoration purposes. Fuse, overload coil Multiplier of a voltmeter.

Parallel circuit: Voltage across all the resistances is the same Current in each resistor is different and is given by Ohms law The total current is the sum of the separate branch currents. Therefore: I = I1+I2+I3 I= E/R1+E/R2+E/R3 I=E/R Therefore E/R= E/R1+E/R2+E/R3 i.e. 1/R=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3

Examples for parallel circuits: Common domestic appliances Streetlights Connection of voltmeter to measure the potential deference Ammeter shunt.

Series parallel circuit: Combination of series and parallel circuits. Club Series and parallel resistances independently to calculate equivalent resistance can be calculated.

Complex circuits:
No. of branches are more Difficult to understand the configuration

Kirchhoffs laws.
current or point law or first law: In any electrical network, the algebraic sum of current meeting at a point or junction is zero, i.e.the sum of the currents flowing towards a point is equal to the sum of those flowing away from it. I1 + I3 + I5 - I2 - I4= 0, or I1 + I3 + I5 = I2 + I4

Mesh or Voltage law or second law:

In a closed circuit, sum of the voltage drops is equal to the sum of the voltage rises.

-I1R1+I2R2+E1+I3R3-E2 = 0

Advantages of AC over DC:

AC can be generated at higher voltages, upto 33000 volts whereas DC is only upto 650 Volts. Voltages can be raised and lowered in AC, easily and efficiently using transformers, which are stationary equipments. AC can be sent to a great distance economically. HV transmission is economical as the material required for transmission is less. Cost of generating AC is less. Large capacity and high-speed alternators are used for bulk supply. AC induction motors are cheap and are used for general purposes. Their maintenance cost is less as compared to DC motors. AC can be converted into DC easily, wherever required, but DC cannot be converted to AC so easily and it will not be economical. In practice, 95% of the total energy is produced, transmitted and distributed is AC

Alternating current principles: Acts in alternate directions, Magnitude undergoes a definite cycle of changes in definite intervals of time. Each cycle consists of two half cycles, during one of which the quantity acts in one direction around the circuit and during the other, in the opposite direction.

Fundamental terms:
Coil rotating in a magnetic field generates an alternating emf. Magnitude of the emf at any instant is given the relation E= Em sin . - a sine wave or sinusoidal wave. Em represents the maximum value of the emf, e the emf at the instant the coil is at angle from the position of zero emf. Cycle: Each repetition of a variable quantity recurring at equal intervals Period: The duration of one cycle is termed its period or periodic time T.

Frequency: The number of cycles that occur in one second. Unit of frequency is the hertz (Hz).

Peak Value or Amplitude: The maximum value, positive or negative, of an alternating quantity. Instantaneous value: The value of an alternating quantity at any instant. Average value: It is the average or mean of all the instantaneous values of half a cycle. RMS Value or Effective Value or Root Mean Square Value: The effective value of an alternating current is given by the direct current that produces the same heating effect in the same resistance.

Form Factor: It is the ratio of the rms value to the average value of the wave. For sine wave Form factor = 0.707maximum value \ 0.637maximm value = 1.11 The measuring meters in practice measure the rms values Peak Factor: It is the ratio of the peak or maximum value to the rms value of the wave. It is also called as rest factor. For a sine wave peak factor = Maximum value /0.707times the maximum value which is equal to 1.414.

Phase: It is the fractional part of a period through which time one alternating quantity has advanced over another alternating quantity. Or, the angular displacement between the two In Phase: Two alternating quantities are said to be in phase when they pass through their zero values at the same instant and attain their maximum values at the same instant in a given direction. Out of Phase: If two alternating quantities reach their maximum or minimum values at different times keeping any equal phase angle between them they are said to be out of phase.

Power Factor: When the voltage E and current I are in phase, then the power is their product, EI,. When they are 900 out of phase the power is zero. In practice the circuit contains resistance and inductance. The current is neither in phase nor 900 lagging. The power of the circuit depends on the angle between the voltage and current. The power is given by W = EI cos, where cos is called the power factor. Also it is the ratio of true power to the apparent power. True power or real power does useful work. Apparent power is the product of current and voltage of the circuit.

Effect of low power factor: For a given output, a low pf causes higher current. The size of the alternator must be increased if it has to work at low pf. The earning capacity of the generating station is reduced because it has less true power. Current increase causes a greater power loss and greater voltage drop in the conductors. Lagging current cause transformers and alternators to work with a poor voltage regulation.

Methods of improving power factor: By installing capacitors By using over excited synchronous motors. Power factor measurement: Power factor meters are used to measure the pf of a circuit. Voltmeter, ammeter and wattmeter can be used to know the pf of a circuit. The ratio of wattmeter reading and the product of voltmeter and ammeter reading is the pf.

Single-phase circuits: Pure Resistance Circuit: One possessing neither inductance nor capacitance. Current is proportional to the voltage. Waveform of current is exactly the same as that of voltage. The two quantities are in phase with each other. To obtain the power at each instant the current and voltage are multiplied together.

Purely Inductive Circuit: Capacitance or Resistance do not exist. Alternating current produces a alternating flux linking the inductance, a self-induced emf is set up. The magnitude of induced emf depends on the supply frequency and is given by Ei=2 f L I. The unit of inductance is Henry, which is denoted by letter H

Wave forms of applied voltage, induced voltage and current.

The self-induced emf opposes the applied emf. The building up of the current is opposed by inductance of coil. The opposition is called the inductive Reactance. It is denoted by XL and it measured in ohms. It directly proportional to the product of frequency and inductance. Thus XL -= 2 f L.

Power in a purely inductive circuit

Instantaneous voltage and current are multiplied to get the power. In a purely inductive circuit the power consumption is zero

AC circuit containing capacitance only: On a DC supply, there is no continuous flow of current due to its dielectric. Heavy current flows in the starting, which charges the capacitor to a voltage equal to the applied voltage. On AC supply the capacitor is charged and discharged during alternate quarter cycles. The charge and discharge current gives rise to an alternating current. The capacitance is denoted by letter C and its unit is farad, which is denoted by letter F. The alternating emf applied to a capacitor causes the current in the capacitor to lead the applied emf by 90 degrees.

Opposition offered by a capacitor to AC is called capacitive reactance It is denoted by Xc It is measured in ohms. It is inversely proportional to the product of frequency and capacitance and is given by Xc = 1/2 f C.

Resistance and Inductance is Series:

Resistance and capacitance in Series:

Resistance, Inductance and Capacitance in Series:

AC Parallel Circuits: Two or more branches exist. Branch may consist of LCR connected across the same source. Parallel circuits are solved in the following three ways Admittance method Vector method J - method or symbolic method. The reciprocal of impedance is called the admittance It is denoted by letter y and it is measured in mhos. Y=1/X Z= Z1+ Z2+Z3+ Similar to the impedance, the admittance also has two components the resistance (R) and reactance (X). The resistance component is termed as conductance (g) and the reactance component is termed as susceptance (b). In the vector method the branch current and power factor angle of each branch is determined, then each vector is resolved into X and Y components.

Polyphase system: In electrical system using more than one phase is called a polyphase system. Three-phase system is widely used because they are superior to the single phase system in many ways. Advantages of polyphase system: For a given size of frame, a polyphase generator or motor has greater output than a single phase. A polyphase transmission line requires less conductor than a single-phase line. Polyphase motors have a uniform torque; whereas single-phase motors have a pulsating torque Polyphase motors are self-starting, whereas single-phase motors are non-self starting Polyphase generators work in parallel without difficulty.

Symmetrical system: In a symmetrical system the several emfs are equal and are displaced from one another by equal angles. Balanced system: In a balanced system the emfs, currents, and phase angles are equal for each phase.

3-phase working: In a three-phase alternator three similar windings are placed 120 electrical degrees apart. The emfs induced in the windings are displaced by 120 degrees. At any point of time the vector sum of the voltages of three phases is zero. So, the sum of the instantaneous values of emfs or currents in a balanced 3-phase circuit is always zero.

These three windings are connected to the external load by 3 wire and 4 wire systems. They are either connected in star or in delta. Star Connection: Similar ends are joined together. The other ends are joined to the line wires The common point is known as the neutral point or star point. In a star connected system Voltage between two phases i.e. the line voltage is equal to 3 times the phase voltage. The phase current and line currents are equal to each other. The power consumption is given by 3 times the phase power or 3ELIL cos

3 phase 4-wire system:

Three phases of the alternator or transformer are connected in star. Three line wires are taken form the terminals. Fourth wire or neutral is taken from the star point.

Delta Connection: The starting ends of the phases are joined to finishing ends. For a delta connection the line and phase voltages are equal. The line current is 3 times the phase current. The power is given by 3ELIL cos.

Measurement of Power in 3-Phase circuits: Star connected balanced load, with neutral point available:

Star or delta connected balanced load, neutral point not available:

An artificial neutral point made by using non-inductive resistances.

Two Wattmeter method for Star or connected, balanced or unbalanced loads:


The algebraic sum of the two wattmeter readings give the power in the circuit.