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Heat Exchanger Design

Appendix

Problem Defined
Objective and Specification
Design Heat Exchanger
Results Summary
Conclusion

Problem Defined
Chemical temperature must be cooled by at least
20 degrees Celsius
Mass flow rate is 220,000 kg/hr.
Material properties must be defined as water.
City Water Temperature must be 20 C.
Length of the heat exchanger can not exceed 7
meters.
Minimize pressure drop, shell and tube weight.
Shell Diameter should not exceed 2 meters.

Objective
Calculate the heat transfer ratio between 0.95
and 1.
Minimize the weight of the Heat Exchanger.
Minimize the pressure drop for the shell and
tube side.

Design Heat Exchanger


First use notes and your experience to
eliminate the variables.
Use matlab and Minitab to run the DOE on the
variable to see their effect.
Find the final 4 or 5 variables that effect the
heat exchanger design.

Variables

Shell and Tube Fluid


Mdot Shell and Tube
Temperature of Shell in and Out
Temperature of Tube in and Out
Rf of Tube in
Rf of Tube Shell side
Shell tube side fluid reversed
Type of Flow
Number of shell and tube pass
Type of baffle
Baffle space and cut
Shell ID and thickness
Nusselt Shell and Tube
Pressure shell and Tube
Tube OD and thickness
Tube length and number of tubes
Tube Pithch and layout angle

Input Variables

Shell and Tube Fluid: Water


Temperature of Shell in: 20 C
Temperature of Tube in: 45 C
Temperature of Tube Out: 25 C
Type of flow: Counter flow
Number of tube pass: 1
Number of Shell pass: 1

Design of Experiment (DOE)


Total variables: 32
Eliminated 22 variables including the inputs
using notes and experiences.
10 Variables so 2 DOE for 5 variables in each
Reduced 6 variables using DOE
Final Variables: Mdot shell, Shell ID, Tube OD
and length,

First DOE: Main Effect Plots


Data Means

Data Means

Data Means

I_counter_flow

Main Effects Plot for q Calc

Main Effects Plot for q Desired

Main Effects Plot for q (des - calc)


mdot_shell

I_counter_flow

Tube_Len

1000000

mdot_shell

I_counter_flow

Tube_Len

5500000

mdot_shell

Tube_Len

6000000

5250000

5000000

5000000

1.25

300

Baffle_Space

500

4.875

8.125

Tube_th

Mean

Mean

0.75

4500000
0.75

1.25

300

Baffle_Space

500

4.875

8.125

Mean

4750000

-1000000

4.875

8.125

4000000

4750000

0.390525

0.650875

0.0006668

0.390525

0.390525

0.0011113

0.650875

0.650875

mdot_shell

I_counter_flow

Tube_Len

0.0006668

0.0011113

0.0011113

Main Effects Plot for Weight_HE


Data Means

Data Means

Data Means

I_counter_flow

0.0006668

Main Effects Plot for DP shell

Main Effects Plot for DP Tube

mdot_shell

Tube_Len

16000

I_counter_flow

mdot_shell

Tube_Len

12000000
14000

10000000

280

8000000

12000

6000000

10000

0.75

1.25

300

Baffle_Space

500

4.875

8.125

Mean

4000000

200

0.75

1.25
Baffle_Space

Tube_th

300

500
Tube_th

12000000

4.875

8.125

Mean

240

Mean

500
Tube_th

5000000

4500000

320

300

5000000

-1000000

320

1.25
Baffle_Space

6000000

5250000

0.75

Tube_th

5500000

1000000

4000000

0.75
16000

1.25
Baffle_Space

300

500
Tube_th

14000

10000000

280

12000

8000000
6000000

240

10000

4000000
0.390525

200

0.390525

0.390525

0.650875

0.0006668

0.0011113

0.650875

0.0006668

0.0011113

0.650875

0.0006668

0.0011113

4.875

8.125

First DOE: Pareto Charts


Pareto Chart of the Standardized Effects

Pareto Chart of the Standardized Effects

Pareto Chart of the Standardized Effects

(response is DP shell, Alpha = 0.05)

(response is Weight_HE, Alpha = 0.05)

(response is DP Tube, Alpha = 0.05)

2.06

2.05

F actor
B
C
D

2.05

N ame
mdot_shell
Tube_Len
Baffle_S pace

Tube_Len

BD

Term

Term

Term

Tube_Len

Tube_th

CD

Tube_th

BC
0

10

20

30
40
50
Standardized Effect

60

70

10

80

Pareto Chart of the Standardized Effects

20
30
Standardized Effect

40

50

Pareto Chart of the Standardized Effects

(response is q Calc, Alpha = 0.05)

(response is q (des - calc), Alpha = 0.05)

2.1

2.1
F actor
B
C
D
E

Tube_Len

E
Term

Term

Tube_th
B

Baffle_Space
D
mdot_shell

BC
0

20

40

60
80
100
Standardized Effect

120

140

160

50

100
Standardized Effect

150

200

N ame
mdot_shell
Tube_Len
Baffle_S pace
Tube_th

10

20
30
Standardized Effect

40

50

First DOE: Optimization


mdot_sheTube_Len Baffle_S
Optimal
High
500.0
8.1250 0.6509
D
Cur [302.0202][4.8750] [0.3905]
0.93553 Low
300.0
4.8750 0.3905
Composite
Desirability
0.93553
Weight_H
Targ: 8400.0
y = 8451.2000
d = 0.96800
DP shell
Targ: 5150000.0
y = 5.236E+06
d = 0.97762
DP Tube
Targ: 185.0
y = 188.270
d = 0.78200
q Calc
Targ: 3800000.0
y = 3.781E+06
d = 0.98511
q (des Targ: 1300000.0
y = 1.303E+06
d = 0.98300

Tube_th
0.0011
[0.0007]
0.0007

Second DOE: Main Effect Plots


1000000

Data Means

Data Means

Data Means

Baffle_Cut

Main Effects Plot for q Calc

Main Effects Plot for q Desired

Main Effects Plot for q (Des - calc)


Shell_ID

Baffle_Cut

I_Shell_mat

Shell_ID

Baffle_Cut

I_Shell_mat

5500000

5000000

0.495300

0.74295

Tube_OD

1000000

1.23825

1.5

2.5

Shell_th

4500000

4500000
0.371475
0.495300
Tube_OD

0.74295

1.23825

1.5

2.5

Shell_th

Mean

0.371475

Mean

Mean

5000000

4750000

-1000000

I_Shell_mat

6000000

5250000

Shell_ID

6500000

5500000

0.371475
0.495300
Tube_OD

0.74295

0.0142875

0.0165

1.23825

1.5

2.5

Shell_th

6500000

5500000

6000000

5250000

5500000

5000000

5000000

4750000

4500000

-1000000
4500000
0.0142875

0.0142875

0.0238125

0.0165

0.0275

0.0238125

0.0275

Main Effects Plot for Weight_HE

Main Effects Plot for DP Shell

Data Means

Data Means

Data Means

Shell_ID

I_Shell_mat

Baffle_Cut

Shell_ID

Baffle_Cut

I_Shell_mat

1000

8000000

14000

750

7000000

12000

500

6000000

250

5000000

Shell_ID

I_Shell_mat

0.371475
0.495300
Tube_OD

0.74295

1.23825
Shell_th

1.5

2.5

4000000
0.371475
0.495300
Tube_OD

1000

8000000

750

7000000

500

6000000

250

5000000

0
0.0142875

0.0238125

0.0165

0.0275

0.74295

1.23825
Shell_th

1.5

2.5

Mean

10000

Mean

Mean

0.0165

0.0275

Main Effects Plot for DP Tube


Baffle_Cut

0.0238125

8000
0.371475
0.495300
Tube_OD

0.74295

0.0142875

0.0165

1.23825
Shell_th

14000
12000
10000
8000

4000000
0.0142875

0.0238125

0.0165

0.0275

0.0238125

0.0275

1.5

2.5

Second DOE: Pareto Charts


Pareto Chart of the Standardized Effects

(response is DP Tube, Alpha = 0.05)

(response is DP Shell, Alpha = 0.05)

2.1

2.05
F actor
B
C
D
E

B
C

N ame
S hell_ID
I_S hell_mat
Tube_O D
S hell_th

Term

Term

Tube_OD

Term

Pareto Chart of the Effects

Pareto Chart of the Standardized Effects

(response is Weight_HE, Alpha = 0.05)

CE

Tube_OD

Shell_ID

BC
BE
0

50

100
150
Standardized Effect

200

Pareto Chart of the Standardized Effects

10

15
20
Standardized Effect

25

30

Pareto Chart of the Standardized Effects

(response is q Calc, Alpha = 0.05)

(response is q (Des - calc), Alpha = 0.05)

2.0

2.0

Tube_OD

Term

Term

Tube_OD

Shell_ID

Shell_ID

20

40
60
Standardized Effect

80

100

20

40
60
Standardized Effect

80

100

200

400

600
Effect

800

1000

1200

Second DOE: Optimization


Baffle_C Shell_ID I_Shell_ Tube_OD Shell_th
Optimal
High
0.4953 1.2383
2.50
0.0238 0.0275
D
Cur [0.3715] [0.9631] [1.50] [0.0194] [0.0179]
0.84011 Low 0.3715 0.7430
1.50
0.0143 0.0165
Composite
Desirability
0.84011
Weight_H
Targ: 11500.0
y = 1.150E+04
d = 0.99949
DP Shell
Targ: 6500000.0
y = 6.496E+06
d = 0.99223
DP Tube
Targ: 625.0
y = 579.8636
d = 0.63891
q Calc
Targ: 5500000.0
y = 5.411E+06
d = 0.82195
q Desire
Targ: 5150000.0
y = 5.106E+06
d = 0.70843
q (Des Targ: -300000.0
y = -3.05E+05

Final: Main Effect Plots


Main Effects Plot for Weight_HE

Main Effects Plot for DP Shell

Data Means

mdot_shell

20000

Main Effects Plot for DP Tube

Data Means

Tube_len

mdot_shell

10000000

18000

Data Means

mdot_shell

Tube_len

1800

8000000

16000

1200
6000000

225

375

4.5

Shell_ID

20000

7.5
Tube_OD

600

4000000
225

375

10000000

18000

4.5

Shell_ID

7.5
Tube_OD

Mean

12000

Mean

225

375

4.5

7.5

Shell_ID

Tube_OD

1800

8000000

16000

2400

1200

14000

6000000

12000

4000000

0.74295

1.23825

0.0142875

0.0238125

600
0
0.74295

1.23825

0.74295

0.0238125

Main Effects Plot for q desired

Main Effects Plot for q calc

Tube_len

5250000

6000000

mdot_shell

1000000

5500000

7000000

0.0142875

0.0238125

Data Means

mdot_shell

Tube_len

1.23825

Main Effects Plot for q (des - calc)

Data Means

Data Means

mdot_shell

0.0142875

Tube_len

5000000

5000000

-1000000

4000000
225

375

4.5

Shell_ID

7.5
Tube_OD

Mean

4750000
4500000
225

375

4.5

Shell_ID

7.5
Tube_OD

5250000

6000000

-2000000
225

375

4.5

Shell_ID

1000000

5500000

7000000

Mean

Mean

14000

Mean

Tube_len

2400

7.5
Tube_OD

5000000

-1000000

4750000

5000000

4500000

4000000

0.74295

0.74295

1.23825

0.0142875

0.0238125

1.23825

0.0142875

0.0238125

-2000000
0.74295

1.23825

0.0142875

0.0238125

Final: Pareto Charts


Pareto Chart of the Standardized Effects

Pareto Chart of the Standardized Effects

Pareto Chart of the Standardized Effects

(response is DP Shell, Alpha = 0.05)

(response is Weight_HE, Alpha = 0.05)

(response is DP Tube, Alpha = 0.05)

2.201

2.20
F actor
B
C
D

N ame
Tube_len
S hell_ID
Tube_O D

2.16

mdot_shell
Tube_OD
Term

Term

Term

Tube_OD

Tube_len

Tube_len
Shell_ID

BC
0

10
15
20
Standardized Effect

25

30

(response is q (des - calc), Alpha = 0.05)

(response is q (des - calc), Alpha = 0.05)

3.2

2.31
F actor
A
B
C
D

B
D

F actor
A
B
C
D

N ame
mdot_shell
Tube_len
S hell_ID
Tube_O D

D
BD
A
C

Term

BD
A

AD
CD
AB

BC
ABD

AD

BCD
AC

CD

Pareto Chart of the Standardized Effects

Pareto Chart of the Standardized Effects

Term

3
4
Standardized Effect

10

20

30
40
50
Standardized Effect

60

70

80

50

100
150
200
Standardized Effect

250

300

N ame
mdot_shell
Tube_len
S hell_ID
Tube_O D

8
10
12
Standardized Effect

14

16

18

Final: Optimization

Final Variables Calculated

Desired/Calculated Heat Transfer Rate = 1.00


Overall System Weight = 14382.27 kg
Tube-side Pressure Drop = 417.46 Pa
Shell-side Pressure Drop = 3092917.05 Pa