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Day 29: Mechanical Behavior of Polymers

Review How are Properties Defined Introduction to Viscoelasticity Simple Material Models Strain Rate and Temperature Effects

Review
Basic definitions: thermoplastic, thermoset, elastomer. Lets talk about the kind of mechanical behavior seen in polymers.
1. Stiffness, E 2. Strength 3. Ductility

Factors which can determine the strength of a polymer.

Mechanical Properties
i.e. stress-strain behavior of polymers
brittle polymer
FS of polymer ca. 10% that of metals

plastic

elastomer
elastic modulus less than metal

Strains deformations > 1000% possible (for metals, maximum strain ca. 10% or less)

Adapted from Fig. 15.1, Callister 7e.

Tensile Properties for Polymers

T and Strain Rate: Thermoplastics


Decreasing T...

(MPa)
80 60 40 20 60C 0 0 0.1 0.2 to 1.3 0.3 4C 20C 40C

-- increases E -- increases TS -- decreases %EL


Increasing strain rate...

Data for the semicrystalline polymer: PMMA (Plexiglas)

-- same effects as decreasing T.

Adapted from Fig. 15.3, Callister 7e. (Fig. 15.3 is from T.S. Carswell and J.K. Nason, 'Effect of Environmental Conditions on the Mechanical Properties of Organic Plastics", Symposium on Plastics, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 1944.)

Effects of Strain Rate and Temperature


stress Increasing strain rate

Increasing temp

strain

Time Temp for Delrin (Strain Rate)

http://www2.dupont.com/Plasti cs/en_US/assets/downloads/d esign/230323c.pdf

Time Temp for Delrin (Strain Rate and Temp)

http://www2.dupont.com/Plasti cs/en_US/assets/downloads/d esign/230323c.pdf

Time Temp Dependence


Plastic deformation of polymers involves chain uncoiling and chain sliding Increasing temperature increases relative space between chains and makes uncoiling easier. Slowing the strain rate means there is more time for chain reconfiguration.

Introduction to Viscoelasticity
Some features that are observed in polymeric materials that do not seem to be noticeable in metals or ceramics 1. Mechanical properties depend on Temperature 2. Mechanical properties depend on Strain Rate 3. Creep (noticed in metals at high temperatures) 4. Stress Relaxation 5. Hysteresis

Creep
Take a tension specimen made from a polymer and and put on a series of constant stresses on it. We observe

Creep: Progressive strain (deformation) over time at constant stress (load), usually at high temperatures

Creep Test
We instantly load with constant stress for a certain time, and instantly unload.
Note that both linear elastic and viscous fluid behaviors are present. Note that there seems to be some residual strain at the end, i.e. the material does not completely recover. There is both elasticity and plasticity.

Creep of PEEK

Write down two examples of parts that see constant tensile or bending load.

Stress Relaxation
Think of a polymer specimen loaded with a constant strain.

Note that both linear elastic and viscous fluid behaviors are present. Note that there seems to be some residual stress at the end, i.e. the material does not completely recover. There is both elasticity and plasticity.

Stress Relaxation: Progressive loss of stress (load) over time under constant strain (deformation), usually at high temperatures

Stress Relaxation of Delrin

http://www2.dupont.com/Plasti cs/en_US/assets/downloads/d esign/230323c.pdf

Write down two examples of parts that see constant strain.

Effect of Temperature: Glass Transition Temperature Or why does Garden Hose behave the way it does?

Melting vs. Glass Transition Temp.


What factors affect Tm and Tg?
Both Tm and Tg increase with increasing chain stiffness Chain stiffness increased by 1. Bulky sidegroups 2. Polar groups or sidegroups 3. Double bonds or aromatic chain groups Regularity effects Tm only

Adapted from Fig. 15.18, Callister 7e.


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Tg and Tm

Hysteresis
Polymers often dont load and unload on the same line on the stress-strain curve. The difference in areas under those curves represents energy loss (often to heat). This means that polymers can have inherent energy damping. This means plastic springs may not be as good an idea as plastic dampers.

Load-Unload Cycle in Nylon

Hysteresis in Delrin

Takeaways
Yield and Ultimate Strength are defined differently for polymers. Polymers have time and temperature dependent properties (viscoelasticity)
Creep Stress Relaxation Tg, Tm Hysteresis