Sunteți pe pagina 1din 36

LEDs, its principles and market

(Explanation of LEDs, its history, its significance in our daily lives, its market, its technical principles)

Date : 13-Mar-2013 Current Version: V.0 Dated: 13-Mar-2013

Created by: Shashank Sayanwar tra@dstlworld.com

DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

Access Level: Level: -1 -1 Access

Contents

Contents
1. LEDs 2. History of LEDs 3. Significance of LEDs 4. LED Market 5. LED Principles

DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

Access Level: Level: -1 -1 Access

Scope Constraints Exclusions


Scope
This is training cum presentation about fundamentals of LEDs with its basic principles, its significance in our daily lives, information about its market.

Constraints
This training is restricted to the fundamentals and basic principles of the devices and does not contain the advanced principles and explanation of the working of the device

Exclusions
NA
DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.
Access Level: Level: -1 -1 Access

Definitions
LEDs: LEDs are solid-state semiconductor devices that convert electrical energy directly into light. CCT: IESNA Definition: the absolute temperature of a blackbody whose chromaticity most nearly resembles that of the light source. CRI: Measure of the degree of color shift objects undergo when illuminated by the light source as compared with the color of those same objects when illuminated by a reference source, of comparable color temperature. Chromaticity: The dominant or complementary wavelength and purity aspects of the color taken together, or of the aspects specified by the chromaticity coordinates of the color taken together. Luminous Flux: The rate of flow of light, measured in lumens. The overall light output of a lamp.
DE DE CORE CORE SCIENCE SCIENCE & & TECHNOLOGIES TECHNOLOGIES LTD. LTD
Access Level: Level: -1 -1 Access

Definitions
External Quantum Efficiency (EQE) The ratio of the number of photons emitted from the LED to the number of electrons passing through the device - in other words, how efficiently the device coverts electrons to photons and allows them to escape. EQE = [Injection efficiency] x [Internal quantum efficiency] x [Extraction efficiency] Injection Efficiency In order that they can undergo electron-hole recombination to produce photons, the electrons passing through the device have to be injected into the active region. Injection efficiency is the proportion of electrons passing through the device that are injected into the active region Internal Quantum Efficiency

DE DE CORE CORE SCIENCE SCIENCE & & TECHNOLOGIES TECHNOLOGIES LTD. LTD

Access Level: Level: -1 -1 Access

Definitions
(IQE - also termed Radiative Efficiency) Not all electron-hole recombinations are radiative. IQE is the proportion of all electron-hole recombinations in the active region that are radiative, producing photons.

Extraction Efficiency (also termed Optical Efficiency) Once the photons are produced within the semiconductor device, they have to escape from the crystal in order to produce a light-emitting effect. Extraction efficiency is the proportion of photons generated in the active region that escape from the device. **********

DE DE CORE CORE SCIENCE SCIENCE & & TECHNOLOGIES TECHNOLOGIES LTD. LTD

Access Level: Level: -1 -1 Access

Definitions
Wall-Plug Efficiency (also termed Radiant Efficiency) Wall-plug efficiency is the ratio of the radiant flux (i.e the total radiometric optical output power of the device, measured in watts) and the electrical input power i.e the efficiency of converting electrical to optical power. Wall-Plug Efficiency = [EQE] x [Feeding efficiency] Feeding Efficiency Each electron-hole pair acquires a certain amount of energy from the power source when the LED is operating. Feeding efficiency is the ratio of the mean energy of the photons emitted and the total energy that an electron-hole pair acquires from the power source.

DE DE CORE CORE SCIENCE SCIENCE & & TECHNOLOGIES TECHNOLOGIES LTD. LTD

Access Level: Level: -1 -1 Access

Raison detre
Learning Outcomes
1. Understanding of fundamentals of LED 2. Understanding of the basic principles of LED 3. Understanding of the parameters of the LED 4. Knowledge of the LED Market 5. Knowledge of LEDs History

DE DE CORE CORE SCIENCE SCIENCE & & TECHNOLOGIES TECHNOLOGIES LTD. LTD

Access Level: Level: -1 -1 Access

LED (Light emitting diodes)


LEDs are solid-state semiconductor devices that convert electrical energy directly into light. LEDs can be extremely small and durable; some LEDs can provide much longer lamp life than other sources. The plastic encapsulant and the lead frame occupy most of the volume. The light-generating chip is quite small (typically a cuboid with one side equal to 0.25 mm).

Light is generated inside the chip, a solid crystal material, when current flows across the junctions of different materials.
The composition of the materials determines the wavelength and therefore the color of light.

DE DE CORE CORE SCIENCE SCIENCE & & TECHNOLOGIES TECHNOLOGIES LTD. LTD

Access Level: Level: -1 -1 Access

LED (Light emitting diodes)


.

DE DE CORE CORE SCIENCE SCIENCE & & TECHNOLOGIES TECHNOLOGIES LTD. LTD

Access Level: Level: -1 -1 Access

DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

Access Level: -1

LED (Light emitting diodes)


In 1960 Dr Nick Holonyak of General Electric was developing an unusual material, GaAsP, as a route to wide bandgap tunnel diodes. When an infra-red GaAs semiconductor laser was demonstrated in 1962, Holonyak with his wider bandwidth GaAsP was in the perfect position to have a go at making a visible version. With advice from GaAs laser pioneer and fellow GE employee Dr Robert Hall, Holonyak made his visible laser later in 1962. It's this October 1962 paper on the GaAsP laser for which Holonyak became known as the father of the LED where LEDs are defined as visible light emitters based upon minority carrier injection and radiative recombination of excess carriers.

DE DE CORE CORE SCIENCE SCIENCE & & TECHNOLOGIES TECHNOLOGIES LTD. LTD

Access Level: Level: -1 -1 Access

LED (Light emitting diodes)


The same material is still used to produce deep red LEDs today. Holonyak had another connection with early light emitters. He had been John Bardeens first graduate student, the same Bardeen that invented the transistor at Bell Labs in 1947 with Walter Brattain and William Shockley. Shockley, along with Howard Briggs and James Haynes, applied for a patent on infrared LEDs in both silicon (1.1m) and germanium (800nm) as early as 1951. The silicon device only appears to have worked at liquid nitrogen temperatures, but the germanium LED worked cryogenically and at room temperature.

1951 is an early year for LEDs, but it not the first.

DE DE CORE CORE SCIENCE SCIENCE & & TECHNOLOGIES TECHNOLOGIES LTD. LTD

Access Level: Level: -1 -1 Access

LED (Light emitting diodes)


Russian Oleg Vladimirovich Losev reported creation of the first LED in 1927.
Rubin Braunstein[13] of the Radio Corporation of America reported on infrared emission from gallium arsenide (GaAs) and other semiconductor alloys in 1955.

In 1961 American experimenters Robert Biard and Gary Pittman, working at Texas Instruments,[15] found that GaAs emitted infrared radiation when electric current was applied and received the patent for the infrared LED.

DE DE CORE CORE SCIENCE SCIENCE & & TECHNOLOGIES TECHNOLOGIES LTD. LTD

Access Level: Level: -1 -1 Access

LED (Light emitting diodes)


The first practical visible-spectrum (red) LED was developed in 1962 by Nick Holonyak, Jr., while working at General Electric Company. The first high-brightness blue LED was demonstrated by Shuji Nakamura of Nichia Corporation in 1994 and was based on InGaN

DE DE CORE CORE SCIENCE SCIENCE & & TECHNOLOGIES TECHNOLOGIES LTD. LTD

Access Level: Level: -1 -1 Access

LED (Light emitting diodes)


16

Advantages
LEDs produce more light per watt than incandescent bulbs, and are rapidly approaching CFLs. LED light is directional and can be focused to highlight areas without the use of reflectors. LED lifetime is not effected by on/off cycling. Fluorescents burn out more quickly. HIDs require warm up and cool down periods. LEDs produce instant light when turned on. They achieve full brightness is micro seconds. LEDs, being solid state components, are difficult to damage with external shock, unlike fluorescent and incandescent bulbs which are fragile.

DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

Access Level: -1

LED (Light emitting diodes)


17

Advantages
LEDs are a true GREEN lighting source as they do not contain any harmful chemicals or gasses. Fluorescents contain mercury, and Incandescent contains lead. Average lifetimes frequently average 50,000 hours, and even up to 100,000 hours in certain applications. Fluorescents - 15,000 to 20,000 hrs., Incandescent 1,500 to 2,500 hrs. LEDs rarely fail to the point of replacement. Fluorescent and Incandescent can burn out completely where LED failure is usually classified as light depreciation (fading over time). LEDs ARE the most efficient light source. In a tough economy right now, LEDs are a great way to lower monthly energy bills, and save the planet at the same time.
DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.
Access Level: -1

LED (Light emitting diodes)


18

Advantages
LEDs do not emit any IR or UV. This is especially important in perishable food displays.

DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

Access Level: -1

LEDs & Lighting


19

LEDs are used as street lights and in other architectural lighting. LEDs are used in aviation lighting. Airbus has used LED lighting in their Airbus A320 Enhanced since 2007. LEDs are also suitable for backlighting for LCD televisions and lightweight laptop displays and light source for DLP projectors. LEDs are also suitable for backlighting for LCD televisions and lightweight laptop displays and light source for DLP projectors

DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

Access Level: -1

LEDs & Lighting


20

The lack of IR or heat radiation makes LEDs ideal for stage lights using banks of RGB LEDs that can easily change color and decrease heating from traditional stage lighting. LEDs are used for infrared illumination in night vision uses including security cameras. LEDs are increasingly finding uses in medical and educational applications.

DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

Access Level: -1

Correlated Color Temperature (CCT)


21

Measures the "warmth" or "coolness" of a light sources appearance in degrees Kelvin (K) against reference light sources Incandescent color temperatures are about 2,700o K Daylight lamp color temperatures are 5,000o K + Indirectly relates to energy savings Higher color temperature lamps appear brighter A subjective index depending on personal preference

DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

Access Level: -1

Correlated Color Temperature (CCT)


22

DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

Access Level: -1

Color Rendering Index (CRI)


A measure of a light source's ability to render the 23 color of objects "correctly," as compared to a reference light source of comparable color temperature The scale is between 0 and 100

Generally, the higher the number, the better


Color swatches used to determine CRI are red, green, and blue A subjective index: depends on personal preference

DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

Access Level: -1

Color Rendering Index (CRI)


24

DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

Access Level: -1

Other Important Lighting Definitions


25

Lamp generic term for a light source


Ballast electronic device that drives the lamp(s) Lumen total amount of light produced Foot-candle one lumen/square foot Light Level synonymous with foot-candle

Efficacy (lighting efficiency) - lumens/watt


HO high output fluorescent lamp VHO very high output fluorescent lamp

HP High Performance T8 lighting system


DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.
Access Level: -1

Other Important Lighting Definitions


26

The luminous efficacy of a light source is the ratio between the emitted luminous flux and the amount of the absorbed energy to transmit it. It is expressed in lumen/watt (lm/W). The lumen, the measure unit of the luminous flux, is equal to the luminous flux detected in a solid angle of one steradian and emitted towards all directions from a source with a luminous intensity of 1 candle.

DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

Access Level: -1

Other Important Lighting Definitions


27

The steradian sr symbol- is the SI unit of solid angle and it is defined as " the solid angle subtended at the center of a sphere of radius r by a portion of the surface of the sphere having an area r ". Since the area of the sphere is 4r, as a consequence the solid angle subtended by the whole sphere is equal to 4sr).

DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

Access Level: -1

Other Important Lighting Definitions


28

Moreover, the luminous flux is defined on the basis of the subjective perception of the medium human eye and it corresponds to a particular curve inside the spectrum of the visible light. A light bulb emits radiation even outside the visible spectrum, (usually in the infrared and in the ultraviolet wavelength), which does not contribute to the brightness perception. A lamp has a higher luminous efficacy as much as it is able to emit a spectrum suitable for the human vision

DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

Access Level: -1

Other Important Lighting Definitions


29

DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

Access Level: -1

LEDs Market
30

The market is on clear transition path from traditional lighting technologies to LED

Regulation across the globe has become more stringent, fueling the penetration of more energy efficient light sources LED prices have eroded more aggressively, pulling forward the payback time of LED lighting
The total market is expected to grow annually by 5 percent through by 2016, and by 3 percent thereafter until 2020.
DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.
Access Level: -1

LEDs Market
31

Asia is expected to account for approximately 45 percent of the global general lighting market by 2020. Value in the LED chip and package market is set to shift from backlighting to general lighting.

The lighting control system market is already mushrooming, with a growth rate anticipated at almost 20 percent per annum.

DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

Access Level: -1

LEDs Market
32

China has passed a legislation to ban incandescent lightbulbs. Govt has also reacted to the disaster in fukushima by debating the nuclear phaseout. This is expected to boost the uptake of low-energy light sources that help to close the looming energy gap. The LED prices have eroded more aggressively, pulling forward the payback time of LED lighting. The LED share in general lighting will be 45 percent in 2016 and almost 70 percent in 2020. Asia currently leads the the market transition to LED in general lighting, driven especially by swift penetration in China and Japan.
DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.
Access Level: -1

LEDs Market
33

Factor fueling the further uptake of LED


LED is regarded as the most promising technology in terms of commercial viability in 2020 from among several kinds of clean technology such as photovoltaic solar power, wind power, and electric vehicles. The price of LEDs is tumbling even faster than anticipated, helping to further drive technology transition. One is the considerable overcapacity of LED Chips and packages has built up due to huge investments in LED Chip/package production lines in China. Alongside the price reduction trends triggered in the backlighting segment, the low price LED Chips and packages has begun flowing into the general lighting segment, especially low to mid power range LED components, which are mainly for diffuse area lighting.

DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

Access Level: -1

LEDs Market
34

Factor fueling the further uptake of LED


The LED has expanded the application space for the segment by new products, such as media facades and new kinds of entertainment lighting. In addition, LEDs have advantages, such as RGB color controllability, and flexibility.

DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

Access Level: -1

LEDs Market
35

DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

Access Level: -1

Conclusions & Action to be taken


CONCLUSIONS

ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN

THANKS
DE CORE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES LTD.
Access Level: Level: -1 -1 Access