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VATICAN CITY STATE

Vatican City is landlocked sovereign citystate whose territory consists of a walled enclave within the city of Rome, Italy.

It has an area of approximately 44 hectares (0,44 km), and a population of just over 800. This makes Vatican City the smallest independent city in the world by both area and population.

The Vatican climate is the same as Rome's; a temperate, Mediterranean climate with mild, rainy winters from September to mid-May and hot, dry summers from May to August.

Political system The government of Vatican City has a unique structure. The Pope is the sovereign of the state. Legislative authority is vested in the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, a body of cardinals appointed by the Pope for five-year periods.

Papa Benedict XVI

Executive power is in the hands of the President of that commission, assisted by the General Secretary and Deputy General Secretary. The state's foreign relations are entrusted to the Holy See's Secretariat of State and diplomatic service. Nevertheless, the pope has full and absolute executive, legislative and judicial power over Vatican City. He is currently the only absolute monarch in Europe.

Vatican City State was established in 1929 by the Lateran Treaty.

Patti Lateranensi was signed by Italy and church. According to this treaty it was accepted which official language was Catholic and Rome was holy city.

The Vatican citizenry consists almost entirely of two groups: clergy, most of whom work in the service of the Holy See, and a very few as officials of the state; and the Swiss Guard.

SWISS GUARD

Swiss Guards are the Swiss soldiers who have served as bodyguards, ceremonial guards, and palace guards at foreign European courts since the late 15th century. Apart from household and guard units, regular Swiss mercenary regiments have served as line troops in various armies; notably those of France, Spain and Naples up to the 19th century. In contemporary usage, the name Swiss Guards generally refers to the Pontifical Swiss Guard of Holy See.

Vatican City is home to some of the most famous art in the world.

St. Peter's Basilica, whose successive architects include Bramante, Michelangelo,Giacomo dell Porta, Maderno and Bernini, is a renowned work of Renaissance architecture.

The Sistine Chapel is famous for its frescos, which include works by Perugino, Domenico Ghirlandaio and Botticelli as well as the ceiling and Last Judgement by Michelangelo. Artists who decorated the interiors of the Vatican include Raphael and Fra Angelico.

Vatican has 200 magazines and news. It is published weekly and monthly. Also it has 154 radio stations or emission. In addition there are 49 tv channels or cable tv.

The Vatican Gardens have been a place of quiet and meditation for the Popes ever since 1279 when Nicholas III moved his residence back to the Vatican from the Lateran Palace.

QUESTIONS 1) Which Hollywood movie is about the Vatican? 2) Today what is name of the pope ? 3) Was the Vatican City established by who ? 4) How many years is the pope duty ?