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# Formation Pressure

Day Three
Objectives :
Fracture Pressure

Leak Off Tests Kick Tolerance Casing Shoe Selection Well Control
Hole Problems Lost Circulation Kicks Killing the Well
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Formation Pressure

FRACTURE PRESSURE

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Formation Pressure
Why Fracture Pressure Evaluation?
The determination of fracture pressure is an integral tool in well planning. Knowledge of fracture pressures in a well assists in locating protective casing developing the mud program influencing the well control program

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Formation Pressure
Downhole Stress & Fracture Pressure
Three principle downhole stresses are recognized a major stress (1) an intermediate stress (2) a minor stress (3) Fracture pressure is defined as the applied pressure which, when equal to or exceeding the formations minor horizontal matrix stress and its pore pressure, produces a fracture.

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Formation Pressure
Downhole Stress & Fracture Pressure
Fracturing will occur perpendicular to the plane of least stress.
Near surface, horizontal fracturing may occur due to the low overburden. Below a certain depth, overburden will exceed horizontal stress and vertical fracturing will occur.

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Formation Pressure
Determining Fracture Pressure
Pressure

## In oilfield operations two fracture pressures should be considered

Fracture Initiation Pressure the pressure needed to open a new fracture.
Time

Initiation Pressure > Pore Pressure + Matrix Strength + Least Horizontal Stress

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Formation Pressure
Determining Fracture Pressure
Pressure

## In oilfield operations two fracture pressures should be considered

Fracture Initiation Pressure the pressure needed to open a new fracture.
Time

## Fracture Injection Pressure

the pressure needed to hold open and extend a pre-existing fracture. Initiation pressure may be 10-50% higher than injection pressure.
Injection Pressure > Pore Pressure + Least Horizontal Stress

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Formation Pressure
The Plan (3) Fracture Pressure
S
(from 1)

P
(from 2)

## Rock Cuttings Poissons Ratio u Tectonic stress

LEAK OFF TEST Maximum Dynamic Mud Pressure & Maximum Shut-in Casing Pressure

Kick Tolerance

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Formation Pressure
Determining Fracture Pressure
To calculate fracture pressure we need to know overburden pressure

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Formation Pressure
Determining Fracture Pressure
To calculate fracture pressure we need to know overburden pressure pore pressure

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Formation Pressure
Determining Fracture Pressure
Elastic
To calculate fracture pressure we need to know overburden pressure pore pressure how the rock behaves Rocks can be considered to be elastic: deform under stress & return to their original shape once the stress is removed.

Stress Released

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Formation Pressure
Determining Fracture Pressure
Plastic
To calculate fracture pressure we need to know overburden pressure pore pressure how the rock behaves Rocks can be considered to be elastic: deform under stress & return to their original shape once the stress is removed. plastic: deform but do not return to their original shape once the stress is removed.

Stress Released

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Formation Pressure
Determining Fracture Pressure
Fracture pressure calculations generally consider rocks to be elastic, and a Poissons ratio is included in the calculation.
Poissons ratio is the ratio of change in length and diameter of a cylinder of rock under stress. Poissons ratio is not applicable to formations that plastically deform.

Poissons ratio
= ( d/d ) / (l/l ) where:
= Poissons ratio d = change in diameter d = original diameter l = change in length l = original length d d l l

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Formation Pressure

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Formation Pressure
Leak Off Tests
A Leak Off Test is used to determine the maximum pressure that can be applied to the formation while drilling the next hole section. Generally LOTs are performed after cementing casing. This zone is considered to be the weakest part of the formation for the next hole section. There are distinct types of pressure test: FIT - Formation Integrity Test This tests to a predetermined pressure, which is designed to be below the probable fracture pressure. LOT - Leak Off Test Determines the yield point of the weakest formation. Formation Breakdown This fractures the formation and injects fluid.
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Formation Pressure
Leak Off Tests
Pre-Test Procedures
Equipment required for the monitoring of mud volume, surface pressure and pump rate need to be tested prior to the LOT. Usually the rig equipment is not accurate enough to measure the small volumes required and so service company equipment is utilised: Most cementing companies have 10 barrel tanks and these need to be calibrated in 0.25bbl increments. An accurate gauge or pressure recorder is required to measure pressure in 20psi increments. Pump rates need to be 1/8 bbl/min and so the pumps need to be checked to see if they can operate at this required level. Pre-test calculations need to be done to determine: anticipated LOT pressure annulus, drillstring and open hole volumes anticipated slope (minimum volume line) of the LOT frictional pressure loss to initiate circulation.
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Formation Pressure
Leak Off Tests
Leak Off Test Procedures (1)
Step 1 - Drill out the liner hanger / float collar and test. Step 2 - Drill out the shoe-track and test. Step 3 - Drill out the shoe and test. Step 4 - Drill 2-3m (5-10ft) of new formation. Step 5 - Circulate to ensure that the hole is clean of cuttings and monitor the mud density, to ensure that the mud is the same density throughout the hole and that the density is known. Step 6 - Pull the bit inside the casing and either close the BOPs or the packer. Step 7 - Rig up the cementing unit to either pump down the annulus or the drillstring and test.

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Formation Pressure
Leak Off Tests
Leak Off Test Procedures (2)
Step 8 - Slowly pump at 0.25bbl/min until bleed off or until the fracture pressure is reached. NEVER EXCEED 80% OF THE MINIMUM YIELD OF THE WEAKEST EXPOSED CASING OR THE PRE-TEST FRACTURE PRESSURE. Step 9 - Record the mud volume pumped versus pressure, monitoring every 0.25 bbl pumped. Step 10- During the test, draw up a plot of the pressure versus the mud volume. Step 11- When the maximum pressure is reached, shutdown the pumps and record the pressure every 2 minutes for twenty minutes. Step 12- Release the pressure by either opening the BOPs or the packer and record the mud volume returned.

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Formation Pressure
Leak Off Tests
Formation Integrity Test This test does not fracture the formation but merely tests the formations integrity to a pre-determined test pressure. Typically the anticipated slope shows a linear relationship between the volume pumped and the pressure

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Formation Pressure
Leak Off Tests
Leak-Off Test Initially the LOT follows the same linear pattern on the anticipated slope as the FIT. At the point of divergence leak-off is achieved and the trend becomes non-linear.

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Formation Pressure
Leak Off Tests
Formation Breakdown Test Again the anticipated slope is linear prior to achieving breakdown of the formation.

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Formation Pressure
Leak Off Tests
LOT Example Calculation
Depth of test = 9050 ft Mud Weight = 9.5 ppg Gauge Press = 850 psi

Extended LOT
Gauge Pressure (psi)

b a c bleed off pump stopped a = Leak-off Pressure b = Initiation Pressure c = Injection Pressure Vol. (bbl) Time (mins)

## Fp = (9050 * 9.5 * 0.0519) + 850

Fp = 5312.1 psi Fg = 5312.1 / (9050 * 0.0519)

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Formation Pressure

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Formation Pressure
Fracture Pressure Estimation
Fracture pressure theory has been marked by confusion:
By applying results and conclusions obtained in sandstones to shales. And by using methods outside the region of study. The more well known theories include :
Hubbert and Willis (1957) Matthews and Kelly (1967) Eaton (1968) Cesaroni, Giacca, Schenato & Thieree (1981) Daines (1982)

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Formation Pressure
Fracture Pressure Estimation
Hubbert & Willis (1957)
They examined pressures related to the hydraulic fracturing of sandstones, superposed stresses caused by the borehole and the reduction of stress caused by pre-existing fractures. They said that the pressure to open a pre-existing fracture was only slightly greater than the minimum horizontal stress. Fracturing would occur when the minimum horizontal stress was equal to 1/3 to 1/2 of the vertical effective stress.

F = (S + 2P) / 3
F = Fracture Pressure S = Overburden Pressure P = Pore Pressure 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School

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Formation Pressure
Fracture Pressure Estimation
Matthews & Kelly (1967)
They derived a matrix stress coefficient working with data collected from Gulf Coast sandstones. The constant - k - varies from 0.33 to 1.0 with depth. Two curves were produced, one for offshore Texas and one for offshore Louisiana. (The difference is due to higher clay content in the offshore Texas formations.) F=k+P
F = Fracture Pressure k = Matrix Stress Coefficient = Vertical Stress (overburden)

P = Pore Pressure
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Formation Pressure
Fracture Pressure Estimation
Eaton (1968)
Eaton recognised that the overburden gradient should be a variable. Eatons Poissons Ratio comes from fracture tests in sandstones, and the method continues to be valid for sandstones but not for shales. F = (S - P) * ( / ( 1 - ) ) + P
F = Fracture Pressure S = Overburden Pressure P = Pore Pressure = Poissons Ratio

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Formation Pressure
Fracture Pressure Estimation
Cesaroni, Giacca, Schenato & Thieree (1981)
They recognised the difference in elastic and plastic rocks. There are three conditions : 1) Elastic rocks with non penetrating mud : F = [(S - P) * (2 / (1 - ))] + P 2) Elastic rocks with a penetrating mud : F = [(S - P) * 2 ] + P 3) Plastic rocks : F=S
= 0.25 for clean sands & carbonates at shallow depths = 0.28 for shaley sands & carbonates at greater depths

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Formation Pressure
Fracture Pressure Estimation
Daines (1982)
This requires good leak-off test data : Step 1) At the shoe calculate superposed tectonic stress dt = F - [ (S - P) * ( /( 1- )) ] - P calculate stress ratio b = dt / (S - P) Step 2) At any subsequent depth calculate superposed tectonic stress dt = (S - P) * b calculate fracture pressure F = dt + [ (S - P) * ( / (1 - )) ] + P

Where: F = Fracture Press. from LOT S = Overburden Pressure P = Pore Pressure dt = Superposed Tectonic Stress b = Effective Stress Ratio = Lithology specific Poissons 29

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## Formation Pressure Evaluation School

Formation Pressure
Fracture Pressure Estimation
Daines (1982) Daines uses a table of lithology specific Poissons ratios. His method attempts to take into account local tectonic stress. The method hinges on a reliable leak-off test being performed and the correct Poissons ratio being used.

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Formation Pressure
Fracture Pressure - Conclusion
The calculation of fracture pressure is critical for successful well planning.
Leak off tests and fracture tests will give good offset data if their limitations are recognized. Fracture pressure estimation while drilling however, has to be interpreted with care. Many methods are based on regional data sets which should not be used globally.

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Formation Pressure
Formation Pressure Worksheet
Air Gap Water Depth Norm al PP 95.1 feet 728.4 feet 8.7 ppg

## Agip Fracture Pressure Calculations

29.0 m etres 222.0 m etres 1.04 sg Fracture Pressure Data Poisson - Clean Sst Poisson - Dirty Sst 0.250 0.280 Using the AGIP method, the shales can be assumed to have Frac.Pr. = to OBG.

## Well - Bideford - 31/7 : Grossenschmuck : Celtic Petroleum

AGIP Fracture Pr. TVD (ft) TVD (m ) OBG (sg) Pore Pr dt Sandst (ppg) (sg)
300.0 450.0 600.0 750.0 900.0 1050.0 1200.0 1350.0 1500.0

984.3 1148.3 1312.3 1476.4 1640.4 1804.5 1968.5 2132.5 2296.6 2460.6 2624.7 2788.7 2952.7 3116.8 3280.8 3444.9 3608.9 3772.9 3937.0 4101.0 4265.1 4429.1 4593.1 4757.2

300.0 350.0 400.0 450.0 500.0 550.0 600.0 650.0 700.0 750.0 800.0 850.0 900.0 950.0 1000.0 1050.0 1100.0 1150.0 1200.0 1250.0 1300.0 1350.0 1400.0 1450.0

1.08 1.21 1.30 1.38 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.64 1.67 1.71 1.74 1.76 1.79 1.81 1.84 1.86 1.88 1.90 1.92 1.94 1.96 1.97 1.99

1.03 1.02 0.91 0.89 0.94 0.97 0.95 0.94 0.91 0.87 0.90 0.84 0.80 0.77 0.83 0.74 0.81 0.69 0.73 1.05 1.16 1.03 1.14 1.20

50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00

9.0 9.7 10.2 10.6 11.2 11.6 11.8 12.1 12.3 12.5 12.7 12.8 12.9 13.0 13.3 13.3 13.6 13.5 13.7 14.4 14.7 14.6 14.9 15.1

1.07 1.17 1.22 1.27 1.34 1.39 1.42 1.45 1.48 1.49 1.53 1.54 1.55 1.56 1.60 1.59 1.63 1.62 1.64 1.73 1.76 1.75 1.79 1.81

depth m

1650.0 1800.0 1950.0 2100.0 2250.0 2400.0 2550.0 2700.0 2850.0 3000.0 3150.0 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 Pore - Fracture - OBG

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Formation Pressure
Formation Pressure Worksheet
Air Gap Water Depth Norm al PP 95.1 feet 728.4 feet 8.7 ppg

## Agip Fracture Pressure Calculations

29.0 m etres 222.0 m etres 1.04 sg Daines Poissons Ratios Wet Clay Clay Silty Shale Sndy Shale 0.50 0.17 0.17 0.12 Conglom Crse Sst Med Sst Fine Sst Cly Sst 0.20 0.05 0.06 0.04 0.24 Siltst Avg Lst Shly Lst Foss Lst Dolom ite 0.08 0.28 0.17 0.09 0.21

## Well - Bideford - 31/7 : Grossenschmuck : Celtic Petroleum

Daines Fracture Pr. TVD (ft) TVD (m ) OBG (sg) Pore Pr Poisson Stress (sg)

## LOT Data (Tectonic Stress Calc.)

Depth

(ppg)

(sg)

Pois

Stress

Beta

984.3 1148.3 1312.3 1476.4 1640.4 1804.5 1968.5 2132.5 2296.6 2460.6 2624.7 2788.7 2952.7 3116.8 3280.8 3444.9 3608.9 3772.9 3937.0 4101.0 4265.1 4429.1 4593.1 4757.2

300.0 350.0 400.0 450.0 500.0 550.0 600.0 650.0 700.0 750.0 800.0 850.0 900.0 950.0 1000.0 1050.0 1100.0 1150.0 1200.0 1250.0 1300.0 1350.0 1400.0 1450.0

1.08 1.21 1.30 1.38 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.64 1.67 1.71 1.74 1.76 1.79 1.81 1.84 1.86 1.88 1.90 1.92 1.94 1.96 1.97 1.99

1.03 1.02 0.91 0.89 0.94 0.97 0.95 0.94 0.91 0.87 0.90 0.84 0.80 0.77 0.83 0.74 0.81 0.69 0.73 1.05 1.16 1.03 1.14 1.20

0.50 0.50 0.06 0.12 0.12 0.06 0.12 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.10 0.17 0.12 0.08 0.08 0.17 0.17

400

12.9

1.55

0.50

139

0.62

1278 1254

1.95 1.97

1400

16.3

1.95

0.17

1278

0.77

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Formation Pressure
300.0 450.0 600.0 750.0 900.0 1050.0 1200.0 1350.0 1500.0
depth m

1650.0 1800.0 1950.0 2100.0 2250.0 2400.0 2550.0 2700.0 2850.0 3000.0 3150.0 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50

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Formation Pressure

KICK TOLERANCE

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Formation Pressure
Kick Tolerance Definition
Kick Tolerance is defined as the maximum formation balance gradient that may be encountered if a kick is taken at the current depth, with the current mud density and the well shut-in, without downhole fracturing occurring. The limit of this pressure is usually set by the minimum fracture pressure in the open hole.
It is of great importance that the estimated kick tolerance is not exceeded because if a kick is taken whilst drilling, there is an increased risk that an underground blowout will result when the well is shut in.

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Formation Pressure
Kick Tolerance Calculation
Kick tolerance can be constantly calculated while drilling:
KT = (TVDwf/TVDb) * (FPmin - MW) + MW Where:
FPmin = Fracture Pressure at weakest formation( ppg ) MW = Mud weight (ppg) TVDwf = True vertical depth of weakest formation (ft) TVDb = True vertical depth of bit (ft)

This is the Kick Tolerance value that should be reported by INTEQ pressure engineers.

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Formation Pressure
Kick Tolerance Definition
If fluids enter the well bore the mud density will drop and the pore pressure that can be tolerated will be less
A minimum kick tolerance allowing for influx can be calculated using : Ktmin = [(TVDwf/TVD) * (Pfmin - MW)] [(Lk/TVD) * (MW - Wk)] + MW Where:
Ktmin = Minimum Kick Tolerance (lb/gal) Wk = Density of kick fluids (lb/gal) Lk = Length of kick (ft)

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Formation Pressure

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Formation Pressure
Casing Seat Selection
During well planning, correct determination of pore and fracture pressure are important for selecting the depths for casing seats. The selection process starts at the base of the hole. Once the depths have been selected it is important to check whether the formation is suitable for setting a casing seat. For near surface casing strings local legislation usually determines the maximum and minimum depths for drive pipe and surface casing. Once the number of casing strings have been determined then the casing sizes can be selected. The more casing strings needed, the more costly the well.

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Formation Pressure
Casing Seat Selection

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Formation Pressure
Casing Seat Selection
This graph is drawn from the data on the previous slide. Casing selection starts at the bottom, drawing a line vertically from the final mud weight up to the fracture pressure curve - ( 1 to 2 ) This is where the casing shoe should be placed. The process continues on up the well bore. Accurate fracture pressures important!

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Formation Pressure
Casing Seat Selection

## Low Mud Density High Mud Density

Note that if an excessively high mud weight is used then more casing seats are required. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 43

Formation Pressure

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Formation Pressure
Basic Well Control
There are two conditions :
Overbalanced Conditions
Formation/shoe fracture Lost Circulation Stuck pipe problems Increased costs Kicks Stuck pipe problems Borehole stability problems Increased costs

Underbalanced Conditions

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Formation Pressure
Lost Circulation

The partial or complete loss of whole drilling fluid to a formation. May be due to ...
Poor cement jobs. Permeable, unconsolidated, cavernous, vuggy or naturally fractured formations. Mechanically induced fractures
Too quick a start of pumps when breaking circulation. Too high mudweight / viscosity. Too quick tripping velocity. Too high pump rates / pressure pulses.

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Formation Pressure
Recognising Lost Circulation

Drilling break - often the first indication Pit volumes decrease Return flow diminishes or stops Pump pressure decreases
Loss into Natural Fractures = Loss occurs during or after a formation change or after rough drilling Loss into Induced Fractures = Loss occurs while tripping, breaking circulation or raising the mud weight Loss into Porous/Permeable Formations = Loss occurs gradually and increases with penetration rate
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Formation Pressure
Lost Circulation
Problems
Expensive Cost of materials Cost of rig time Higher circulation pressures required to pump LCM Possibility of plugging Bit Motors MWD tools Lowered hydrostatic pressure of mud column Kicks Prevention Know the Geology Types of formations Tectonic history Monitor Formation Pressures Fracture pressure Mud weight / ECD Monitor Tripping and Casing Runs Calculate surge pressure Monitor pressure to break circulation Monitor pit levels and return flow
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Formation Pressure
Well Kicks
For a kick to occur: Pore pressure > hydrostatic of the mud column Formation must be porous and permeable
Most common causes of kicks are: Failure to keep the hole full Result of lost circulation Swabbing of light formation fluids Insufficient mud density Abnormal formation pressure

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Formation Pressure
Kicks - Drilling & Tripping
Drilling:
Kicks and blowouts generally occur because of an increase in formation pressure. Kicks and blowouts generally occur because of a decrease in mud hydrostatic.

Tripping:

It should be impossible for a blowout to occur without warning. The well and mud system are a closed system. Any influx will show itself as a change of flow rate or pit volume.

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Formation Pressure
Kicks - Indications

Drill break - increase in penetration rate due to pressure differential Increased flow out and a gain in the mud pits Increase in hookload - buoyancy of mud reduced Decrease in standpipe pressure and increase in pump rate
Increase in flowline temperature Increase in salinity from cuttings fluids or salt water seeps Gas cut mud - when associated with higher connection gases

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Formation Pressure
Kicks - Sequence of Events
While Drilling : (1) Drill break (2) Increase in flow (3) Pit volume increase (4) Pump pressure drops
While Tripping Out : (1) Hole stays full (2) Flow from flowline (3) Pit volume increase While Tripping In : (1) Hole does not stop flowing between stands (2) Pit volume increase

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Formation Pressure
Kicks and Blowouts
A blowout is: An uncontrolled flow of formation fluids into and then from the wellbore. Kicks become blowouts because: Lack of early detection Failure to take proper initial action Lack of adequate casing or cement job Lack of adequate surface control equipment Malfunction of control equipment

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Formation Pressure
Kicks - Control Techniques
Primary: Proper use of drilling fluid and hydrostatic pressure Secondary: Use of the BOP system Correct use of kill methods Drillers method Engineers method Concurrent method Tertiary: Call blowout specialists Drill relief wells

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Formation Pressure
Killing The Well
Pre-Recorded Information & Calculations
Volume Calculations Surface pipe Drill pipe Annular capacities Time/Strokes Surface to bit Bit to surface Kill Rates/Pressures SCRs for each pump

Shut In Pressures Drillpipe (SIDPP) Casing (SICP) Kill Mud Weight Circulating Pressures Initial Final Maximum Allowable Shut In Pressure

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Formation Pressure
Killing The Well
Slow Circulation Rates
Provides Predetermined Kill Rates Why Use SCRs Mud weight increase easier Choke reaction time Minimize pressures Lessen problems with gas at surface SCP + SIDPP = ICP (ICP= Initial Circulating Pressure) SCP * KMW / OMW = FCP (FCP= Final Circulating Pressure)

When Taken? Changing mud properties Changing bit/bha Every 500 feet Each tour After pump repairs

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Formation Pressure
Killing The Well
Shut In Drillpipe Pressure
Used to calculate the kill mud weight. Kill mud weight OMW + (SIDPP / (0.052 * TVD)) Important to be accurate. Not always lower than the casing pressure. Record every minute until stable. After 30 minutes, any rise may be due to gas.

## Shut In Casing Pressure

Indicates type of influx.

Critical to prevention of
Lost circulation Underground blowouts Casing burst BOP stack limits Formation damage

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Formation Pressure
Killing The Well
Maximum Allowable Surface Casing Pressure
This is the maximum pressure for complete safety It may be based on

Maximum fracture pressure at the shoe - (LOTs) Maximum pressure for casing - (casing burst specs) Maximum pressure for the wellhead assembly (equip. specs)

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Formation Pressure
Killing The Well
Rising Pressures After Shutting In
Rising pressures after shutting in may be due to Percolation of gas up through the mud Low permeability in kicking formation It will be impossible to tell the difference until the gas has been circulated out. Gas out and stable drill pipe pressure = Gas percolation Gas out and unstable drill pipe pressure = Low permeability Initially always assume the worst case scenario and assume there is percolating gas.

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Formation Pressure
Killing The Well
Indications of Possible Mechanical Problems While Killing the Well.
Mechanical Problems
Loss of Circulation Choke Line Plugs Bit Nozzle Plugs Bit Nozzle Washout Pump Volume Drops Washout in Drillstring Gas Feeding In Choke Washes Out Gas Reaches Surface Drillpipe Pressure Casing Pressure Hookload Pit Level Pump SPM

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