Sunteți pe pagina 1din 84

Laboratory Practice in PBL

Titi Savitri Prihatiningsih Department of Medical Education Gadjah Mada Medical School

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Contents of Presentation
Learning and Theories of Skills Acquisition Features of PBL and Theoretical foundation Theoretical Foundation

Copyright@Titi Savitri

What is Learning?
Learning is a change in knowledge, understanding, attitude, behaviour and performance as a result of instruction

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Three types of learning


Cognitive
Knowledge

Affective
Cannot learn In isolation
Copyright@Titi Savitri

Attitudes

Skills Psychomotor

Cognitive learning levels


(Bloom)
Evaluation

Synthesis
Analysis

Application
Comprehension

Recall of factual information


Copyright@Titi Savitri

Psychomotor learning levels


Adapting and originating
(modifies performance as conditions change)

Complex overt response (behaviour is skilled,


smooth, efficient, with minimum time and effort)

Mechanism (learned behaviour is habitual)


Guided response (under instructor guidance)

Set (preparatory adjustment for particular action)


Perception (awareness of objects and qualities)
Copyright@Titi Savitri

Attitudinal learning levels


Characterisation of a value

or value complex
Organisation Valuing

Responding
Receiving
Copyright@Titi Savitri

Types of Learning Outcome


(Gagne) Should be learnt in an integrated manner

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Intellectual Skills
Permit the learners to carry out symbolically controlled procedures

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Cognitive Strategies
The means by which learners exercise control over their own learning process

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Verbal Information
The facts and organized knowledge stored in the learners memory

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Attitudes
The internal states that influence the personal action choices a learner makes

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Motor Skills
The movements of skeletal muscles organized to accomplish purposeful actions

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Intellectual skills
discriminations concrete concepts defined concepts rules

higher-order rules (problem-solving)


Copyright@Titi Savitri

Verbal information

- memory or recall
Cognitive strategies

- learning how to learn and think


Motor skills

- goal directed muscular movement


Attitudes

- mental state influencing action


Copyright@Titi Savitri

Definition of Skills
An organized and co-ordianted pattern of mental and/or physical activity in relation to an object or other display information, usually involving both receptor and effector processes. It is build up gradually in the course of repeated training or other experience (Patrick, 1992)
Copyright@Titi Savitri

Characteristics of Skills
Skills are learned or trained Skills implies some coordinated physical or cognitive activity to achieve a goal Skills implies flexible or adaptive performance

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Theories of Skills Acquisition


The cognitive phase intellectualisation process in learning new tasks The fixation of association phase correct patterns of behaviour are slowly established by practice with errors being gradually eliminated The autonomous skill skills become more automatic and requires fewer pyschological resources (Fitts, 1992)
Copyright@Titi Savitri

Theories of Skills Acquisition


Learning skills proceeds through two stages:
the verbal motor cognitive and associative phases (important instruction and feedback) the motor established (Adam, 1987)

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Theories of Skills Acquisition


A schema theory of motor learning (Schmidt, 1975):
The initial conditions Response specifications Sensory consequences Response outcome

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Davis and Harden (1999)


an active learning stimulated by, and focused round a clinical, community or scientific problem

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Ross (1991)
Students work on the problem which is explicitly used to get students themselves to identify and search for the knowledge, that they need to obtain in order to approach the problem

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Albanese and Mitchel (1993)


instructional method characterized by the use of patient problems as a context for students to learn problemsolving skills and acquire knowledge about the basic and clinical sciences

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Dolmans (1994)
Faculty objectives are translated into a problem, usually consisting of a set of phenomena in need of some kind of explanation. Students analyse these problems, attempting to understand the underlying principles or processes through small-group discussion. During discussion, questions which remain unanswered are identified. These questions or learning issues serve as a guide for independent and self-directed learning.

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Copyright@Titi Savitri

The problem acts as a stimulus for learning An educational approach A student-centred approach Active processing of information Activation of prior knowledge Meaningful context Opportunities for elaboration/organization of Collaborative

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Problems

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Further indiction of the importance of organization is obvious from the finding of active rearrangement of randomly presented lists. Even though items from various categories are presented in random order, subjects group the items into their appropriate categories at recollection.
Copyright@Titi Savitri

E N V I R O N M E N T

E F F E C T O R

Executive Control

Expectancies

Response Generator

Long Term Memory


R E C E P T O R Short Term Memory

Sen Sory Regis ter

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Prior Knowledge
Determinant of nature and amount of new information to be processed Need to be activated by contextual cues

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Organization of Knowledge

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Knowledge Structure
The way knowledge is structured in memory makes it more or less accessible for use

Copyright@Titi Savitri

DasarDasar Dx Ilmu Klinik

Masalah sbg Starting Point Pendidikan

DasarDasar Tx

PA

Konsep Patofisiologis

Konsep Fisiologis
Histologi

PK Parasitologi Mikrobiologi
Copyright@Titi Savitri

Anatomi Biokimia

Faal

Ilmu Klinik Asma TBC Pneumonia RDS COPD dd

Sesak napas

DasarDasar Dx Px thorax Px fungsi paru Px sputum DasarDasar Tx -Antibiotik -Antitusif -Sal napas

PA

Konsep Patofisiologis

Konsep Fisiologis
Histologi Sel-sel paru

PK

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Anatomi: Ddg dada Parasitologi paru2 Mikrobiologi: M.Tuberculosis Bakteri gram +

Biokimia Oxygen transfer

Faal: Ventilasi Respirasi Sirkulasi darahparu

Anatomi: Osteologi Visera Peredaran Darah Sistem Saraf

Fisiologi Homeostasis Metabolisme Sel Sistem Respirasi dll

Biokimia Metabolisme Karbohidrat Metabolisme Protein Metabolisme Lemak dll

Histologi Epitel Skuamos Sel-sel jantung dll

Farmakologi Obat-obat SSP Obat-obat Antialergi dll


Copyright@Titi Savitri

Parasitologi: Aedes Aegypti Ascaris Lumbricoides

4548193965199837

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Copyright@Titi Savitri

45 48 1939 65 1998 37

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Kuda Kursi Kemerdekaan Pipa Tiang Uang Buku Rumah Komputer Mobil

Laras Bunga Bambu Lumpur Pohon Malu Kredit Membelah Galeria Pengemis

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Kuda Kursi Kemerdekaan Pipa Tiang Uang Buku Rumah Komputer Mobil

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Elaboration
Storing and retrieving information can be greatly improved when during learning, elaboration takes place

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Recalled underwater Recalled on land

% word recalled

Learned on Land
Copyright@Titi Savitri

Learned under water

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Learning occurs within a context similar to the one in which it will be applied.

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Contextual Cues
The ability to activate knowledge in the LTM and to make it available for use depends on contextual cues

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Motivation
To be motivated to learn, prolongs the amount of study time

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Masalah sbg Starting Point Pendidikan

Copyright@Titi Savitri

problem

Initial discussion

SelfDirected learning

review

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Copyright@Titi Savitri

The Continuum of Teacher-Student Centred

Participation and Responsibility of teacer

Teacher- Centred

Student-Centred

Didactic Lecture Copyright@Titi Savitri

Self-study

Participation and responsibility of student

Definition
A process in which individuals take initiative with or without the help of others in diagnosing learning goals, formulating learning objectives, searching learning resources, selecting and implementing learning experiences and evaluating learning outcomes (Knowles, 1975)
Copyright@Titi Savitri

A learning process, primarily motivated by students own aim (intrinsic motivation) Freedom to self-pace Freedom to follow alternative learning pathways Freedom to select learning goals Freedom to access
Copyright@Titi Savitri

Programme of studies determined by the individual student and pursued under the guidance of a personal tutor Student controlled, structured content and process, developed internally by the students

Copyright@Titi Savitri

A programme of learning organised so that students are able to proceed through a programme at their own pace, filling in the gaps that they do not know and omitting what they do know.

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Transition process in SDL


A. Disconfirmation B. Disorientation C. Naming the problem D. Exploration E. Reflection F. Reorientation G. Sharing the discovery H. Equilibrium

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Characteristics of Small Group Learning


Active Participation A Specific Task Reflection

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Benefits of SGL
Active Learning Self-motivation Promotes deep learning Application of ideas Adult learning Develop transferable skills

Copyright@Titi Savitri

During SGL
Adequate introduction Ensure students understand what to do Facilitate learning Group dynamics: forming, storming, norming, performing Debriefing

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Concerns
High cost of laboratory work Severe time constraints Conventional laboratory work is ineffective to foster understanding and application of scientific concepts to solving problems

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Aims of Laboratory Work


Teaching relevant technical skills Understanding scientific principles Understanding process of scientific enquiry Developing systematic problem-solving skills Nurturing the development of professional attitudes, practices and commitment
Copyright@Titi Savitri

Purpose of Laboratory Work (1)


Teach theoretical material not presented elsewhere Illustrate and amplify lecture material Develop manipulative skills Develop ability to follow instructions Familiarize students with instruments and apparatus
Copyright@Titi Savitri

Purpose of Laboratory Work (2)


Develop observation skills Develop skills in gathering and interpreting data Develop a concern for accuracy and precision Develop skill in communicating experimental results Develop the ability to write coherent and well-argued reports
Copyright@Titi Savitri

Purpose of Laboratory Work (3)


Develop the capacity for self-directed learning Encourage independent thinking Stimulate thought through experimental interpretation Develop students skill in problem solving with a wide number of variables and many possible solutions
Copyright@Titi Savitri

Purpose of Laboratory Work (4)


Encourage enterprise, initiative and resourcefulness Develop personal responsibility and reliability of experimentation

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Researches on Laboratory Work


Less effective for teaching factual knowledge, concepts and scientific enquiry or problem solving skills Emphasize on low grade skills Foster superficial mechanistic knoweldge Little understanding between theory and practice
Copyright@Titi Savitri

Drawbacks of Conventional Laboratory Work


Ritual: students follow instructions and not required to think Assessment: asking factual knowledge Teacher-centred Lack of prior knowledge Design of curriculum: knowledge in unconnected
Copyright@Titi Savitri

Innovative Laboratory Work


Experiential-based learning Student-centred Opportunities for reflection, commitment and active exploration

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Experiential-based learning
Concrete Experience

Active Experimentation

Reflective Observation

Abstract Conceptualisation

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Demonstrations
Illustrate and consolidate theoretical principles Should be held shortly after the lecture

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Exercises
Tightly structured experiments Students follow precise instructions Learn observational and manipulative skills, as well as confirm theory

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Structured Enquiries
Partially structured experiments which require students to develop their own procedures and interpretation of results To learn observational, manual, interpretative and problem-solving skills

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Open Ended Enquiries


Identify a problem Formulate a solution Develop experimental procedures Interpret result Recognize implications
To learn advanced problem-solving skills To learn resarch skills To learn applicatin, analysis, synthesis and evaluation (higher order thinking skills)
Copyright@Titi Savitri

Projects
Explore a field deeply Increase intellectual curiousity Develop innovativeness to the full

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Determine

Value Worth Goodness Effectiveness Impact


A Performance A Process An Event A Product
Copyright@Titi Savitri

Copyright@Titi Savitri

Thanks

Copyright@Titi Savitri