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# DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBER

## In a design process a structural

engineer must combine the following:
analysis, engineering judgment,
experience, construction method,
economic design etc. Design cannot be
done if engineer does not know the basic
concept of structural analysis. There are
two consideration in the design of
tension member:
Strength

the tension member must be
adequate to resist the ultimate axial
Stiffness

the tension member must not
fail due to serviceability
requirements
Design of Steel Tension Members
Equations for strength of tension members:
a) For yielding in the gross section:

b) For fracture in the net section:

g y t n t A F P | | =
e u t n t A F P | | =
P
P
Design of Steel Tension Members
Yielding in the gross section:
Max stress F
y
P P
Max stress F
u
Variable Definitions
Resistance factor,

= 0.90 for yielding
= 0.75 for fracture

F
y
= Yield Strength
F
u
= Tensile or Ultimate strength

: t |
Design Requirements
A
g
Gross cross-sectional area
A
e
Effective net area

If tension load is transmitted directly to each of the
cross-sectional elements by fasteners or welds:
A
e
= A
n
A
n
= Net cross-sectional area
(gross-section minus bolt holes)

Design Requirements
If tension load transmitted through some but
not all of the cross-sectional elements:

by fasteners or bolts,
A
e
= A
n
U
by welds,
A
e
= A
g
U or A
e
= AU

TENSION MEMBERS ARE
CONNECTED BY:
Rivets
Bolts
Welds

Do not require highly skilled workers
Holes can be done in the shop
Less equipment needed
Quality of work can be easily
controlled
Faster construction

Minimize construction noise since no impact
wrenches are used as in Bolted connection
Members can be easily installed
Easily be repaired when dimensions are
unmatched
Joints are very rigid
Shop and construction detailing is much
simplier
Simple Bolted Connections
There are different types of bolted
connections. They can be categorized
Tension member connection and splice. It
subjects the bolts to forces that tend to
shear the shank.
Beam end simple connection. It subjects the
bolts to forces that tend to shear the shank.
Hanger connection. The hanger connection
puts the bolts in tension
68402/61420 Slide # 14
Simple Bolted Connections
In most bolted connection, the bolts are subjected to shear.
Bolts can fail in shear or in tension.
You can calculate the shear strength or the tensile strength of a bolt
Simple connection: If the line of action of the force acting on the
connection passes through the center of gravity of the connection,
then each bolt can be assumed to resist an equal share of the load.
The strength of the simple connection will be equal to the sum of
the strengths of the individual bolts in the connection.
In most bolted connection, the bolts are subjected to shear.
Bolts can fail in shear or in tension.
You can calculate the shear strength or the tensile strength of a
bolt
Simple connection: If the line of action of the force acting on
the connection passes through the center of gravity of
the connection, then each bolt can be assumed to resist
an equal share of the load.
The strength of the simple connection will be equal to the
sum of the strengths of the individual bolts in the
connection.
Bolt Types & Materials
A307 - Unfinished (Ordinary or Common) bolts
low carbon steel A36, F
u
= 413 MPa,
for light structures under static load
A325 - High strength bolts, heat-treated medium
carbon steel, F
u
= 827 MPa,
for structural joints
A490 - High strength bolts, Quenched and
Tempered Alloy steel, F
u
= 1033 MPa
for structural joints
A449 - High strength bolts with diameter > 32mm
anchor bolts, lifting hooks, tie-downs

Common Bolts
ASTM A307 bolts
Common bolts are no longer
common for current structural design
but are still available Common Bolts
n u
R P | s 75 . 0 = |
bolt v n
A f R =
MPa f
v
165 =
HSB Bearing Type Connections
The shear strength of bolts shall be determined as follows
bolt v n
A f R =
75 . 0 = |
n u
R P | s
517 413 A490
413 330 A325
If the level of threads is not known, it is conservative to assume
that the threads are type N.
AI SC Table J 3.2
The table bellow shows the values of f
v
(MPa) for different types of bolts
Bolted Shear Connections
In designing the bolted shear connections the factored design
strength (|R
n
) should be greater than or equal to the factored
n
> P
u
So, examining the various possible failure modes and calculate
the corresponding design strengths is a must.
Possible failure modes are:
Shear failure of the bolts
Failure of member being connected due to fracture or yielding or .
Edge tearing or fracture of the connected plate
Tearing or fracture of the connected plate between two bolt holes
Excessive bearing deformation at the bolt hole
Failure Modes of Bolted Connections
Bolt Shearing

Tension Fracture

Plate Bearing

Block Shear
Bolted Shear Connections
Shear failure of bolts
Average shearing stress in the bolt = f
v
= P/A = P/(td
b
2
/4)
P is the load acting on an individual bolt
A is the area of the bolt and db is its diameter
Strength of the bolt = P = f
v
x (td
b
2
/4) where f
v
= shear yield
stress = 0.6F
y
Bolts can be in single shear or double shear as shown above.
When the bolt is in double shear, two cross-sections are effective in
resisting the load. The bolt in double shear will have the twice the shear
strength of a bolt in single shear.
Bolted Shear Connections
Bolted Shear Connections
Failure of connected member
Tension Member can fail due to tension fracture or yielding.
Bearing failure of connected/connecting part due to bearing
from bolt holes
Hole is slightly larger than the fastener and the fastener is loosely placed in
hole
Contact between the fastener and the connected part over approximately
half the circumference of the fastener
As such the stress will be highest at the radial contact point (A). However,
the average stress can be calculated as the applied force divided by the
projected area of contact
Bolted Shear Connections
Average bearing stress f
p
= P/(d
b
t), where P is the force applied to the fastener.
The bearing stress state can be complicated by the presence of nearby bolt or
edge. The bolt spacing and edge distance will have an effect on the bearing
strength.
Bearing stress effects are independent of the bolt type because the bearing
stress acts on the connected plate not the bolt.
A possible failure mode resulting from excessive bearing close to the edge of
the connected element is shear tear-out as shown below. This type of shear
tear-out can also occur between two holes in the direction of the bearing load.
R
n
= 2 x 0.6 F
u
L
c
t = 1.2 F
u
L
c
t
Spacing and Edge-distance requirements
The AISC code gives guidance for edge distance and spacing to avoid tear
out shear

2
h
L L
e c
=
S
e
L
diameter hole the is h mm d h
bolt
6 . 1 + =
NOTE: The actual hole diameter is 1.6 mm bigger than the bolt,
we use another 1.6 mm for tolerance when we calculate net area. Here use 1.6 mm only not 3.2
bolt
d S
3
2
2 >
Bolt spacing is a function of the bolt diameter
Common we assume

The AISC minimum spacing is
e
L
bolt
d S 3 =
AI SC Table J 3.4
Bolt Spacings & Edge Distances
Bolt Spacings
- Painted members or members not subject to corrosion:
2 2/3d Bolt Spacings 24t or 305 mm
(LRFD J3.3) (LRFD J3.5)
- Unpainted members subject to corrosion:
3d Bolt Spacings 14t or 178 mm

Edge Distance
Values in Table J3.4M Edge Distance 12t or 152 mm
(LRFD J3.4) (LRFD J3.5)

d - bolt diameter
t - thickness of thinner plate
Important Notes
L
c
Clear distance
Design Provisions for Bolted Shear
Connections
In a bolted shear connection, the bolts are subjected to shear
and the connecting/connected plates are subjected to bearing
stresses.
Bolt in shear
Bearing stresses in plate
Bearing stresses in plate
T
T
T
T
Bolt in shear
Bearing stresses in plate
Bearing stresses in plate
Bolt in shear
Bearing stresses in plate
Bearing stresses in plate
T
T
T
T
Design Provisions for Bolted Shear
Connections
The shear strength of all bolts = shear strength of one bolt x
number of bolts
The bearing strength of the connecting / connected plates can
be calculated using equations given by AISC specifications.
The tension strength of the connecting / connected plates can
be calculated as discussed in tension members.
Design Provisions for Bolted Shear
Connections
In a simple connection, all bolts share the load equally.
T
T
T/n
T/n
T/n T/n
T/n
T/n
T
T
T/n
T/n
T/n T/n
T/n
T/n
AISC Design Provisions
Chapter J of the AISC Specifications focuses on connections.
Section J3 focuses on bolts and threaded parts
AISC Specification J3.3 indicates that the minimum distance (s)
between the centers of bolt holes is 2.67. A distance of 3d
b
is
preferred.
AISC Specification J3.4 indicates that the minimum edge distance
(L
e
) from the center of the bolt to the edge of the connected
part is given in Table J3.4. Table J3.4 specifies minimum edge
distances for sheared edges, edges of rolled shapes, and gas cut
edges.

AISC Design Provisions
AISC Specification indicates that the maximum edge distance for
bolt holes is 12 times the thickness of the connected part (but
not more than 152 mm). The maximum spacing for bolt holes is
24 times the thickness of the thinner part (but not more than
305 mm).
Specification J3.6 indicates that the design tension or shear
strength of bolts is |F
n
A
b
| = 0.75
Table J3.2, gives the values of F
n
A
b
is the unthreaded area of bolt.
In Table J3.2, there are different types of bolts A325 and A490.

AISC Design Provisions
The shear strength of the bolts depends on whether threads are included or
excluded from the shear planes. If threads are included in the shear planes then
the strength is lower.
We will always assume that threads are included in the shear
plane, therefore less strength to be conservative.
We will look at specifications J3.7 J3.9 later.
AISC Specification J3.10 indicates the bearing strength of plates at bolt holes.
The design bearing strength at bolt holes is |R
n
R
n
= 1.2 L
c
t F
u
2.4 d
b
t F
u
- deformation at the bolt holes is a design
consideration
Common Types of Bolted Connections
TYPES OF BOLT HOLES
Standard
Oversized
Short-slotted
Long-slotted

Connection types
Bearing
Slip-critical
36
Failure Mode of Bolted Shear Connections
Two types of bolted
connector failure are
considered in this
section
Failure of the
connector
Failure of the
connected parts

Failure Mode of Bolted Shear Connections
(cont.)
Connector failure
Single shear connection Single shear plane. P = f
v
A,
where f
v
is the average shearing stress and A is the
connectors cross-sectional area.
Double shear connection Double shear plane. P = 2f
v
A
Failure Mode of Bolted Shear Connections
(cont.)
Failure of the connected parts , separated into two categories.
1. Failure resulting from excessive tension, shear, or bending
in the parts being connected
For a tension member must consider tension on the net area,
tension on the gross area, and block shear
For beam-beam or beam-column connections, must consider block
shear
Gusset plates and framing angles must be checked for P, M, and V
39
Failure Mode of Bolted Shear Connections
(cont.)
2. Failure of the connected part because of bearing
exerted by the fastener (average bearing stress is f
p
=
P/dt)
If the hole is slightly larger than the fastener and the fastener
is assumed to be placed loosely in the hole (rarely the case),
contact between the fastener and the connected part will exist
over approximately 50% of the circumference of the fastener.
The bearing problem is affected by the edge distance and bolt
spacing

40
LRFD Fasteners (cont)
Design bearing strength
1. Usual conditions based on the deformation limit state, according to
LRFD-Formula (J3-1a). This applies for all holes except long-slotted
holes perpendicular to the line of force, where end distance is at least
1.5d, the center-to-center spacing s is at least 3d, and there are two or
more bolts in the line of force.

where = 0.75
d = nominal diameter of bolt at unthreaded area
t = thickness of part against which bolt bears
= tensile strength of connected part against which bolt bears
= distance along line of force from the edge of the connected part to
the center of a standard hole or the center of a short- and long-slotted hole
perpendicular to the line of force.
u
u
F
e
L
) 4 . 2 ( ) 2 . 1 (
u u e n
dtF tF L R u < u = u
LRFD Fasteners (cont)
Design shear strength no threads in shear planes

where = 0.75, the standard value for shear
= tensile strength of the bolt material (120 ksi for A325 bolts;
150 ksi for A490 bolts)
= the number of shear planes participating [usually one
(single shear) or two (double shear) ]
= gross cross-sectional area across the unthreaded shank of the bolt
Design shear strength threads in shear planes

b
b
u n
mA F R ) 50 . 0 ( 75 . 0 = u
u
b
u
F
m
b
A
b
b
u n
mA F R ) 40 . 0 ( 75 . 0 = u
Sequi Examples 7.1 & 7.2
42
LRFD
Fasteners
(cont)
LRFD Fasteners (cont)
Minimum edge distance requirement (AISC J3.4)

LRFD Slip-critical Connections
A connection with high-strength bolts is classified as either a
bearing or slip-critical connection.
Bearing connections - the bolt is brought to a snug-tight
condition so that the surfaces of the connected parts are in firm
contact.
Slippage is acceptable
Shear and bearing on the connector
Slip-critical connections - no slippage is permitted and the
friction force described earlier must not be exceeded.
Slippage is not acceptable (Proper installation and tensioning is key)
Must have sufficient shear an d bearing strength in the event of overload
that causes slip. AISC J3.8 for details.
Spacing, Edge and End Distances
Center to Center (pitch) 24 x thickness of
thinner plate 300mm
Edge distance 12 x thickness of part
150mm
Bolt Shear Strength
F
n
A
b
Table J3.2
F
n
Table J3.2
A
b
Area of bolt

Tabulated on page 7-33, Table 7-10
Bearing Strength at Bolt Holes
J3.10 R
n
= 0.75
R
n
given by equations J3-2

Tabulated on page 7-34,35
Ex. 1.0 - Design Strength

Calculate the design strength of the simple connection shown
below and check whether it is adequate for carrying the
1.25
2.50
1.25
1.25
2.50
1.25
65 k
A36
A36
5 x
3/8 in.
in. bolt s
1.25
2.50
1.25
1.25
2.50
1.25
65 k
A36
A36
5 x
3/8 in.
in. bolt s
63 k
10 mm
120x15 mm
20 mm A325-N bolts
30 mm
60 mm
30 mm
30 mm
60 mm
30 mm
300 kN
Solution:

The design shear strength of one bolt in shear
= |F
n
A
b
= 0.75 x 330 x t x 20
2
/4000 = 77.8 kN
| F
n
A
b
= 77.8 kN per bolt
Shear strength of connection = 4 x 77.8 =
311.2 kN
Ex. 1.0 - Design Strength
Minimum edge distance and spacing requirements
See Table J3.4M, minimum edge distance = 26 mm for rolled
edges of plates
The given edge distances (30 mm) > 26 mm. Therefore,
minimum edge distance requirements are satisfied.
Minimum spacing = 2.67 d
b
= 2.67 x 20 = 53.4 mm.
(AISC Specifications J3.3)
Preferred spacing = 3.0 d
b
= 3.0 x 20 = 60 mm.
The given spacing (60 mm) = 60 mm. Therefore, spacing
requirements are satisfied.
Ex. 1.0 - Design Strength
Ex. 1.0 - Design Strength
Bearing strength at bolt holes.
Bearing strength at bolt holes in connected part (120x15 mm plate)
At edges, L
c
= 30 hole diameter/2 = 30 (20 + 1.6)/2 = 19.2
|R
n
= 0.75 x (1.2 L
c
t F
u
) = 0.75 x (1.2 x19.2 x15x400)/1000 = 103.7 kN
But, |R
n
0.75 (2.4 d
b
t F
u
) = 0.75 x (2.4 x 20x15x400)/1000 = 216 kN
Therefore, |R
n
= 103.7 kN at edge holes.
At other holes, s = 60 mm, L
c
= 60 (20 + 1.6) = 38.4 mm.
|R
n
= 0.75 x (1.2 L
c
t F
u
) = 0.75x(1.2 x 38.4 x15 x400)/1000 = 207.4 kN
But, |R
n
0.75 (2.4 d
b
t F
u
) = 216 kN. Therefore |R
n
= 207.4 kN
Ex. 1.0 - Design Strength
At other holes, s = 60 mm, L
c
= 60 (20 +1.6) = 38.4 mm.
|R
n
= 0.75 x (1.2 L
c
t F
u
) = 0.75 x (1.2 x 38.4 x 10x 400)/1000 = 138.2 kN
But, |R
n
0.75 (2.4 d
b
t F
u
) = 144 kN
Therefore, |R
n
= 138.2 kN at other holes
Therefore, bearing strength at holes = 2 x 69.1 + 2 x 138.2 = 414.6 kN
Bearing strength of the connection is the smaller of the bearing strengths = 414.6
kN
Ex. 1.0 - Design Strength
Connection Strength
Shear strength = 311.2 kN
Bearing strength (plate) = 622.2 kN
Bearing strength (gusset) = 414.6 kN
Connection strength (|R
n
) > applied factored loads (Q).
311.2 > 300 Therefore ok.
Only connections is designed here
Need to design tension member and gusset plate
Example problem

2.0 Calculate the tensile capacity of two A36
plate spliced using 20mm dia. A307 bolts as
shown in the figure. Use LRFD design provision
load. Determine also the distances a and b
Example problem
Tension member
P P
a a 75mm
250mm
P
P
10mm.
10mm.
b
b
Bolt Design Example
Design a pair of splice plates to connect
the two parts of the channel tension
member shown. The forces in the
member are 500kN live load and 280kN