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ADH DAN OKSITOSIN

ST. RAHMAWATI (P 1502208005)


ALIA ANDRIANY (P 1502208002)

PROGRAM STUDI BIOMEDIK JUR. FISIOLOGI


PASCASARJANA UNHAS
(Posterior Pituitary (neurohypophysis

Cell bodies in SON (ADH) & PVN


(Oxytocin)of hypothalamus

onsists of neural endings with


associated blood vessels

cts as storage area, secretory


granules travel down axon

onnects to hypothalamus via

hypothalamic-hypophyseal
tract
Amino acid sequence in oxytocin
& vasopressin

http://www.neurosci.pharm.utoledo.edu/MBC3320/vasopressin.h
tm
The posterior pituitary gland hormones

 Posterior pituitary gland releases 2


hormones:
1. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or arginine
vasopressin
(AVP).
2. Oxytocin

 Both hormones are produced in hypothalamic


nuclei:
- Supraoptic nucleus → (ADH + 1/6 oxytocin)
- Paraventricular nucleus → (Oxytocin + 1/6
ADH)
1. Oxytocin:

Action of oxytocin

 Contraction of smooth muscles of the uterus



enhance labor.
 Contraction of mammary gland myoepithelial
cells of the alveoli & the ducts → Ejection of
milk as a reflex in lactating women.
3. In men → ↑ ejaculation.

Remember: Oxytocin is concerned with


releasing or ejection of milk, while prolactin is
concerned with synthesis & production of
milk.
Control of oxytocin release

1. Stimulation of nipple (suckling reflex) → ↑ oxytocin.

2. Visual or auditory stimuli from the baby → ↑ oxytocin


secretion.
3. Distension of uterus & stretching of cervix during delivery
→ ↑ oxytocin release.
4. During coitus → oxytocin secretion.

5. Psychological & emotional factors, e.g. Fear, anxiety &


pain → ↓
Alcohol → ↓ oxytocin secretion.
6. oxytocin.
1. Hormones: a. progesterone → ↓ uterine sensitivity to
oxytocin.
b. estrogen → ↑ uterine sensitivity to oxytocin.
Neuroendocrine Reflex Arc of
Milk Let-Down

Takes only milliseconds from


suckling to hypothalamus

OT reaches its target a few


seconds later

OT binds receptors on
myoepithelial cells of mammary
gland
Neuroendocrine
Reflex
Neuroendocrine Reflex
The posterior pituitary hormones –
2. ADH (vasopressin):

 Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or arginine


vasopressin
(AVP), is produced mainly in SON of
hypothalamus.

 ADH activates (2) second messenger systems:


1. cAMP
2. IP3
Action of ADH
 ADH has 2 main effects:

1. ↑ water re-absorption (retention) by distal


tubules & collecting ducts of the kidneys →
decrease osmotic pressure of the blood.
* This effect is regulated by V2 receptors, through
the
action of cAMP.
2. Contraction of vascular smooth muscles →
generalized vasoconstriction.
* This effect is regulated by V1 receptors, through the
action
of IP3/Ca2+.
Control of ADH release
1. ↑ in osmotic pressure of the ECF (↑ in plasma
osmolality), as in dehydration which will
stimulate osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus
→ ↑ ADH. Hyperosmolarity of
ECF -ve
feedbac
Receptors in k
hypothalam
us
More ADH Thirs
release t
Collecting ducts of ↑ Water
kidneys intake
Reabsorption of
water
Dilution of
ECF
Control of ADH release … cont.

2. ↓ blood volume (≥ 10%) → stimulate


mechanoreceptors in the great arteries (aorta &
carotids) & rightLoss
atrium → ↑ ADH.
of ECF
volume

Less pressure in Rt.


atrium & great
vessels
Less nerve impulse Thirs
to the t
hypothalamus
More ADH ↑ Water
release intake
More water reabsorption by
kidneys
Maintains ECF
volume
Control of ADH release …cont.

3. ↓ arterial blood pressure, due to ↓ blood volume → ↑


ADH.
4. Age: → ↑ ADH secretion → water retention &
hyponatremia.
5. Pain, emotional stress & physical trauma → ↑ ADH
secretion.
6. Drugs, e.g. morphine, barbiturates, & nicotine → ↑
ADH
secretion.
7. Alcohol → ↓ ADH secretion.
Abnormalities of ADH release –
Hyposecretion:
 Lack of ADH → Diabetes insipidus.

2 types of DI: a. Neurogenic (central, or cranial) …


Problem in Hypothalamus or Post
pituitary
gland
b. Nephrogenic …
in collecting ducts of the kidneys.

Symptoms: Polyurea ≈ 20 L/day (N ≈ 1.5 L/d),


Polydepsia,
↓ specific gravity of urine (diluted urine),

↑ plasma osmolality.
Abnormalities of ADH release –
Hypersecretion:

 ↑ ADH, ‘Schwartz-Bartter Syndrome’:

→ - occurs after surgery.


- adenoma, ectopic kidney.
- Bronchial carcinoma.

Signs & Symptoms:


- Hyponatremia, i.e. [Na+] ↓ extracellularly to 110
mM.
(N = 140 mM); resulting in:
- Mental confusion.
- Coma.
- Death, due to ventricular fibrillation.
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