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Java and Databases

CS-328 Dick Steflik

Database Drivers
Think of a database as just another device connected to your computer like other devices it has a driver program to relieves you of having to do low level programming to use the database the driver provides you with a high level api to the database

ODBC
Open Data Base Connectivity Developed by Microsoft for the Windows platform as the way for Windows applications to access Microsoft databases (SQL Server, FoxPro, Access) Has become an industry standard Most data base vendors supply native, odbc, and jdbc drivers for their data base products

JDBC Architecture
Java Application

JDBC API

Data Base Drivers

Access

SQL Server

DB2

Informix

MySQL

Sybase

JDBC Driver Types


Type 1
JDBC-ODBC Bridge

Type 2
Native API, partially java

Type 3
JDBC Network Driver, partially java

Type 4
100% Java

Type 1 Drivers
Translate JDBC into ODBC and use Windows ODBC built in drivers ODBC must be set up on every client
driver must be physically on each machine for both java applications and applets for server side servlets ODBC must be set up on web server

driver sun.jdbc.odbc.JdbcOdbc provided by JavaSoft with JDK

Type 1 Driver (cont.)

Client

JDBCODBC

ODBC

DB

Vendor Library

Type 2 Drivers
Converts JDBC to data base vendors native SQL calls like Type 1 drivers; requires installation of binaries on each client

Type 2 Drivers (cont.)

Client

JDBC

DB

Vendor Library

Type 3 Drivers
Translates JDBC to a DBMS independent network protocol Typically talks directly with a middleware product which in turn talks to the RDBMS
Jaguar, DBAnywhere, SequeLink

Most flexible driver type all java

Type 3 Drivers (cont.)

Client

JDBC

Vendor Middleware

DB

Tier 1

Tier 2

Tier 3

Type 4 Drivers
Converts JDBC directly to native API used by the RDBMS compiles into the application , applet or servlet; doesnt require anything to be installed on client machine, except JVM handiest driver type

Type 4 Drivers (cont.)

Client

JDBC

DB

Structured Query Language


Developed by C. Date for Relational Data Base Management Systems (RDBMS) Simple Declarative Language
has no program control statements

SQL
Two categories of commands
Data Manipulation Commands
deal with:
RETRIEVING DATA MAINTAINING DATA (ADDING, UPDATING,DELETING

Data Definition Commands


DEAL WITH:
CREATING DATABASE OBJECTS (TABLES,VIEWS) Object organization and attributes

Referential Integrity
Rules to insure that table data stays accurate and accessible
rows in a table should be unique
one column should contain no duplicate data primary key

column values cannot contain repeating groups or arrays null is different than space and zero, 2 null values are not considered equal

Data Manipulation Commands


Select - query and display data from a database Insert - a new row into a table Update - modify a column in a table Delete a row from a table

Select
Select (column list) from (sources) where (conditions) order by (ocolumn list) column list - comma separated list of names of columns to be in output
Ex. ssn , lastname , firstname,gpa can contain literals to be included in output
Ex. Ssn,~,lastname,~,firstname

sources - name(s) of table(s) to retrieve data from conditions (optional) - conditions for selections
lastname like S% (lastname = Steflik) and (firstname like R%)

ocolumn list (optional)- list of columns that output should be ordered by Ex


select * from student select lastname,fristname from student where gpa > 3.0 select lastname,firstname from student order by lastname,firstname

Select - joined tables


Two tables may be joined and viewed as a single data source is the both have a common column suppose we have 2 tables: Inventory and category and each has a column called catg_code In category catg_code is unique and is the primary key

Select - joined tables (cont.)


join Inventory
P_no Catg_code qty Catg_code Category descr

Select - joined tables (cont.)


To retrieve all of the part numbers and the name of the category to which the part belongs:
select inventory.p_no category.descr from inventroy , category select a.p_no, ,b.descr from a inventory , b category

Insert
Add a row to a table
insert into category values(IGN,Ignition System)

use jdbc execute Update method


ex. Stmt.executeUpdate(insert into Category values(IGN,Ignition System));

Update
Modify an existing row in a table
update category set descr = Ignition Subsystem where catg_code = IGN

Use jdbc executeUpdate method


String s = update category set descr = Ignition Subsystem where catg_code =

IGN ;
stmt.executeUpdate(s);

Delete
Remove a row from a table
delete from category where catg_code = IGN remove the IGN category delete from category where catg_code like I% remove all rows where catg_code starts with an I

Data Definition Commands


Create table
add a table to a database

Drop Table
remove a table from a database

Alter Table
add or delete column(s)