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Dr. Osama M.

Shawa ENTECHS, SYRIA & Saudi Arabia

Disaster Mitigation
Role of Engineer as Authority, Designer, Supervisor and Contractor

ABSTRACT
The role of engineer in disaster mitigation is not properly defined or accumulated in a single source. In real life those concerned with disaster mitigation are the politicians. Rarely an engineer role is referred to except in technical papers produced in support of certain opinions or incidents. This paper tries to purposely refer to the role of the engineer in disaster mitigation and make him the main producer of the techniques and codes to be forced on the politicians to implement in their political programs. The goal of this issue is to bring forward the ailments associated with leaving everything to the moment when disaster hits. There where the chaos takes place and people are drastically affected by the consequences of shortcomings associated with no preplan to properly build, assign and manage to avoid disaster or reduce its effect after it hits.

Disasters are of many kinds and come through all walks of life, luckily the engineer is quite prepared to share a big deal of contribution to facilitate disaster mitigation.

PREAMPLE
The objective of this paper is defined as:
Utilizing proper techniques to mitigate disaster in our communities, with emphasis on the role of engineers.
There is no aim to go into the mathematics and arithmatics of the analysis and design of structures. Only the concepts are intended to be understood and implemented properly.
It is more important, through lessons learned in professional life, for an engineer, to know why he should do a certain thing before how to do it.

INTRODUCTION
Natural disasters and man-made disasters are not limited to one part of the world. Disasters can not be eliminated, but their consequences could be mitigated. Disasters are not limited to Earthquakes, it could be the result of: High winds, Heavy rains and floods, High temperature waves, Extremely low temperatures, Earthquakes and volcanoes and their consequences, Earth faults, cavities and slides, Fires Manmade wrong-doings to environment and to mankind.

AUTHORITY ENGINEERS ROLE


The engineers role in disaster mitigation is essential: The engineer should design the CODES. He must adhere to these CODES principles, or proven better findings. He should include these principles in his designs. He should make sure to implement these principles in Construction, Repair , Maintenance, Rehabilitation and Retrofit,. He should train the technical staff to implement these principles in their work. The authorities should: Establish principles and guidelines for disaster mitigation. Publish national, local, and district codes. Enforce the CODE principles on the public. Enlightened the PUBLIC with the facts pertaining to disaster mitigation. Train the Public to face and resolve disasters when they hit. Nothing should be left to
the aftermath.

DESIGNERS ROLE
Designer should adhere to CODE principles, or proven better findings. To achieve the best structure Designer should: 1. Clearly define the objective of constructing the structure. 2. Focus on safety and security, not only on relations between architectural components. 3. Include in the analysis external forces effects on the structure, such as the attacks of environmental attacks such as: wind, fire, earthquakes, volcanoesetc., that may affect the structure throughout its lifetime. 4. Ensure ease of maintenance and repair. 5. Include safety and security measures in conspicuous, easy to reach places. 6. Minimize impact on the environment.

MITIGATION TECHNIQUESS
DIVIDE DEALING WITH THE DISASTER INTO THREE STAGES: 1. STAGE I:
PREPARE TO DEAL WITH DISASTER BEFORE IT HITS.

2.

STAGE II:
PREPARE TO DEAL WITH DISASTER WHEN IT HITS.

3.

STAGE III:
PREPARE TO DEAL WITH DISASTER AFTERMATH.

MITIGATION TECHNIQUES
PREPARATIONS PRIOR TO DISASTER
1- STAGE I: BEFORE:
Assign budget for disaster mitigation. Ensure precise structural calculations, within what code and materials limitations allow, not within what design reimbursements allow. Use strong structural systems that hold together. Do not use commercial assemblages that is built purely for profit. Insist on materials and systems, be it structural, architectural, mechanical, or electrical, that ensures safety when in use, and endure disaster when it hits. Implement Public Defense requirements in the design: Allow easy access to people and properties at disaster. Ensure coherence of the structure, by allowing local failures and disallowing total failure. Allow easy access and readiness of fire fighting systems. Insist on getting the Public Defense License for your building design.

MITIGATION TECHNIQUES
DEALING WITH DISASTER
2- STAGE II: THROUGH: Authorities should have prepared enough budget to deal with disaster. Authorities should have prepared written code for dealing with disaster when it hits. All Authority branches should have been trained on life-size drills. Public should have been trained on fictitious drills and simulations. Public should be well informed to know: 1. What is expected through a disaster. 2. How to behave through the disaster. 3. What to take and what to leave of their belongings. 4. How to exit safely with family and necessary belongings. 5. Where to go, and where to hide. 6. How to help Authorities, and keep order. 7. Where to find, and how to find help.

MITIGATION TECHNIQUES
DEALING WITH the AFTERMATH
3- STAGE III: AFTER: 1. SHORT TERM RESCUE WORKS: Rescue works should utilize preprepared: 1. Equipment's, 2. Necessities, 3. Instruments, 4. Habitat, 5. Food, and 6. Medicine. Rescue should secure temporary engineered structures. Rescue should make use of learned lessons from previous disasters. Authorities & Engineers should analyze the aftermath. Findings of such analysis should be recorded for future implementations. 2. RESCUE SHOULD MAINLY RELY ON LONG TERM FUTURE REMEDIES.

MITIGATION TECHNIQUES
LONG TERM FUTURE REMEDIES
Authorities should: Supply long term loans to rebuild. Encourage private entities to build new housing projects, for displaced public. Grant long term repayment of new housing loans. Insist on code applications in design and construction. Insist on quality and kind of materials and techniques used in rebuilding. Insist on special techniques to rebuild for safe future use. Insist on implementing safety rules and systems in rebuilding. Study, revise, and rewrite rules of performance according to findings and lessons learned.

MITIGATION TECHNIQUES
CODES AND DESIGN
ROLE OF AUTHORITIES
Authorities should establish geological maps. Authorities should establish criteria for design, that: 1. Identify earthquake-prone and other natural disasters regions, 2. Identify different zones. 3. Establish recurrence periods. 4. Establish intensity. 5. Establish reference spectra. Authorities can use: 1. USGS maps. 2. Local Petroleum and minerals geological maps. 3. Satellite services. Authorities should publish and make these maps available to engineers.

MITIGATION TECHNIQUES
CODES AND DESIGN
ROLE OF DESIGNER
Use proper materials & assemblages with enough resilience to absorb energy, Follow code requirements strictly, Pay attention to detail. Engineering is Detailing, Pay attention to connections and assemblage. Make ductile joints, Study steel reinforcement locations and continuity in R.C., Study attachments and fixtures to your structure, Use shear walls, Reinforce masonry in extreme zones, Though beauty is essential to design, safety must supersede, Allow fast and direct access to conspicuous emergency outlets and systems, Design functional systems, with enough resilience, Understand the basics of mathematical model and code requirements.

MITIGATION TECHNIQUES
CODES AND DESIGN
ROLE OF DESIGNER
Avoid fault regions, Low land, Reclaimed land, though sometimes impossible, Study the site before starting design to implement protection against present ailments, Avoid soft and incoherent soil and strengthen the substrate, Design strong but ductile structure. Design non-structural elements, such as finishing, aluminum works, marble cladding, glass, roof parapets, balconies , and ornamentation's to take the ride with the structure during EQ or other disasters occurring. Keep enough distance between structures or their parts, to allow lateral movements without impact.

MITIGATION TECHNIQUES
CODES AND DESIGN
ROLE OF DESIGNER
UNDERSTAND HOW EQ & WIND HIT THE STRUCTURE: BASE SHEAR I. Mass is associated with acceleration. Reduce base shear by reducing mass: 1. Use lightweight materials, 2. Optimize designs. II. Stiffness is associated with displacement. Reduce base shear by reducing stiffness: 1. Use more flexible vertical elements. 2. Ensure ductility and energy absorption of vertical elements. III. Damping is associated with velocity. Reduce base shear by introducing damping factors: 1. Use elastomeric pads under foundations. 2. Use special dampers in the structure.

MITIGATION TECHNIQUES
CODES AND DESIGN
ROLE OF DESIGNER
I. CONCRETE STRUCTURES: Stirrups in columns and beams should be closely spaced to allow for ductile connection. Most column failures are due to largely spaced stirrups. Use butyl rubber separators in expansion joints to allow energy absorption. Use energy absorbing assemblies at critical sections of the building. Pay enough attention to steel reinforcement bars continuity at all sections. Study minute details such as the region of connection between girder and top of pier in a bridge under lateral and vertical movement. Specify DURABILITY of concrete rather than relying solely on STRENGTH specification. Simplify designs to assure proper execution. Supervise construction very closely.

MITIGATION TECHNIQUES
CODES AND DESIGN
ROLE OF DESIGNER
II. STEEL STRUCTURES: Inherently flexible. Do not try to over-stiffen. Pay full attention to connections. Use dog-bone beam end to ensure shear transfer rather than moment transfer. Avoid unnecessary welds. Study possible mechanisms due to local failures of elements.

III. PRECAST STRUCTURES: Study connections deeply. Study construction sequence and technique closely. Avoid unstable mechanisms. Produce flexible joints, with enough resilience to absorb energy. Do not leave any detail for future site smart interpretations.

MITIGATION TECHNIQUES
CODES AND DESIGN
ROLE OF DESIGNER
IV. NON STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS: Study connections to structure of: Walls and in-fill panels, Parapets, Fixtures, electrical and mechanical, Porches, Ornamentation's. Avoid brittle materials. Secure glazing to minimize flying debris. V. LOCAL TRADITIONAL MATERIALS: Avoid building with clay. Avoid laying roofs in tin or lumber resting loosely on walls.

MITIGATION TECHNIQUES
CODES AND DESIGN
ROLE OF CONTRACTOR
Use trained qualified individuals in construction. Abide by specifications. Choose the best possible materials available. Rely on approved Laboratories for testing. Study and analyze designs prior to execution. Bring your fears to the designer, supervisor or management for immediate attention. Make detailed shop drawings.

Coordinate between different trades.

CONCLUSIONS
ETHICAL AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ENGINEERS WORK
Politicians have on their shoulders the heaviest burden of Disaster Mitigation in their societies and the World.
Engineers form the supportingg (and critisizing) class for the politicians in this fiekd. Ethically every engineer in his field should participate in Disaster Mitigation, through his work in any aspect of life. Unless the engineer has paid enough efforts to participate in the Disaster Mitigation, the society and humanity for that matter, shall suffer. EQ resisting structures, flood-surge containment structures, wind-resisting frames and towers, fire fighting, alarm and fire prevention techniques in buildings, war and aggressive acts protection places, security and safety techniques, are but few examples of needed objective in designs carried by the engineer. Codes and Building Regulations should be established and enforced by engineers and their societies.

CONCLUSIONS
ETHICAL AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ENGINEERS WORK
Materials and techniques used in construction must be thoroughly inspected by the engineer.
On top of all, ETHICS should control the engineering societys work, banning: Bribes to facilitate passing unacceptable materials, techniques and items.

Overlooking proper requirement to make design process easier and faster.


Ignoring factors of Disaster Mitigations to suit Politicians or Owners goals. Projects with vital impact on society should be put to public voting, and results respected.

Periodical review must be performed on:


Availability of funds to cover Disaster effects costs when strikes. Civil defense resources and readiness. Availability and readiness of ambulatory, medical and paramedical teams. Plans and methods of evacuation.

CONCLUSIONS
ETHICAL AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ENGINEERS WORK
Engineers and their societies must participate in EDUCATIONG the public in Disaster Mitigation:
In cooperation with media. At all times and not only when disaster striles.

With the purpose of educating how to prepare, behave and overcome disaster, not frightening.

ENTECHS - ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, SYRIA


Dr. OSAMA MAGDY SHAWA Ph D CE, PE Cal, Consultant KSA, Eng of Opinion
Syria, Arbitrator KSA

P O Box 9288 Jeddah 21413 KSA Tele-Fax +9662-6776751

Email: entechs@entechs.com.sa entechs@cyberia.net.sa www.entechs.com.sa