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MASKA 2009-M1

Maska Training Belt Drive Systems


12345Fundamentals V-belt Pulleys & Maska characteristics Limits of Design Drive Optimization Tips Synchronous Drives

MASKA 2009-M1

1. Fundamentals Industry standards for V-belt drives

All standards for V-belt drives are set by two Organizations:

All of the Maska products meet these standards and some offer higher specifications; i.e. like our QD bushings series in ductile iron.

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Maska - Interchangeability
Maska meets MPTA standards Maskas QD sheaves and bushings are interchangeable with QD products made by all other manufacturer members of the MPTA. All fixed bore sheaves from Maska have a reference number stamped on parts or printed on boxes to match manufacturer nomenclature

MASKA 2009-M1

1. Fundamentals Advantages of a Belt Drive System

Easy and economical installation. No lubrication required. Clean & low maintenance. Elasticity of belts helps shock load dampening. Quiet, smooth operation. Long life expectancy when well designed. Good mechanical efficiency.

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1. Fundamentals Important Facts about V-Belt systems

Ability to slip upon overload, resulting in a fail-safe drive. Generally 5% slippage. A belt drive system should never be lubricated as it depends on friction to transmit power, in contrast with chain or gear systems.

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1. Fundamentals Safety Factor

The minimum safety factor should be based on industry standards. Environment and working conditions will affect the safety factor.

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1. Fundamentals Safety Factors

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1. Fundamentals Speed Ratio outside diameters

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1. Fundamentals Datum diameter v.s. Pitch diameter

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Sheaves & Maska characteristics

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BUSHINGS

2. Sheaves & Maska characteristics Bushing Features

QD and ST: in. per foot or a 1.79 degree taper angle TL = 4 degrees A smaller angle allows for a better shaft grip/fit/squeeze

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2. Sheaves & Maska characteristics QD bushings

Ductile iron a unique feature to Maska QD bushings for all bore sizes from JA to M Set screw over the key for all sizes up to P.

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2. Sheaves & Maska characteristics QD compared with Taper-lock and ST

TL: does not have a flange (flush mount)


QD: takes up more room because of the flange, but allows reverse mounting. ST: is flanged but does not allow for reverse mounting.

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2. Sheaves & Maska characteristics Maska QD bushings


All of Maska QD bushings up to W come with a bolt hole pattern for standard and reverse mounting. Maska supply lock washers, grade 5 bolts and keys for shallow keyway bushings.

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2. Sheaves & Maska characteristics QD bushings Installation features

2 ways to mount bushings and pulleys on shaft: standard and reverse. This allows sheaves to be mounted from the most convenient side to reduce overhang load.
STANDARD REVERSE

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2. Sheaves & Maska characteristics QD bushings suitable for V-belt drives

The assembly of TL and ST bushings will resist heavy impacts with sprockets or 300% HTD drives because of their dual locking device on shaft and hub QD bushing V-Belt Drives offer the necessary torque resistance when properly designed and are a preferred option because of their lower cost and easy installation & removal.

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Taper-Lock & Split taper v.s. QD

QD and TL: both have full split ST: Double split in Taper only (partial split)

Therefore, the full split allows for


a better shaft grip or fit (360 contact)

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Sheaves

2. Sheaves & Maska characteristics Sheaves material comparison


Cast Iron machined with precision and tight tolerances, resulting in improved efficiency and a long life expectancy Plastic tolerances are close, but offers poor resistance to wear & heat and is static generating

Die Cast variable tolerances depending on manufacturers. Low wear resistance and some manufacturers leave the burr made by the parting line in the groove reducing belt life Pressed Steel poor tolerances, high wobbling and can only transmit low H.P.

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2. Sheaves & Maska characteristics Sheaves HP capacity

Cast iron (wider range of H.P.) 3L-4L-5L-AAX-B-BX-C-D-3V-5V-8V Plastic 3L-4L-A (low H.P. rating) Die Cast 4L and 5L (low H.P. rating) Pressed steel 4L-5L-A-B (low H.P. rating)

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2. Sheaves & Maska characteristics Sheaves constructions

3 different designs : block (B), webbed (W) and arm (A) depending on pulley sizes.

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Maska MA & MB characteristics


Bore tolerances designed for quick installation and good concentricity Appropriate groove angles per size for a longer belt life Vinyl primer or powder coating paint for a good corrosion resistance Good quality at a competitive price, as per Maska philosophy

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MA & MB Secure Mounting


Secure mounting onto shaft with 2 set screws: one

over the keyway holding the key and one at 90 degrees to maintain the pulley in place on the shaft.

Set screws have a knurled cup point that ensures an efficient grip compared to standard round or cup point.
Recommended torque chart in the catalog

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MFAL Characteristics

Recommended F.H.P. (Fractional-HorsePower) applications


Lighter than the MA series ensures a lower energy consumption at a lower cost for F.H.P. applications A lighter hub made with a hump for the set screw Smaller arms Thinner groove walls

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MFAL Characteristics

This family was designed for the HVAC market

and to be used with MVL.


Combined with the adjustable sheave MVL, there is no need for as many different diameters, as with the other sheaves families to cover the same speed ratios.

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MFAL Characteristics

The MFAL series has the same characteristics than


the Fixed Bore series MA, but with some differences: One set-screw over keyway Lighter design (F.H.P) Special Groove (should not be used with 3L nor AX belt) also for a lighter design. Smaller range of pulley diameters

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Maska - Adjustable Pitch Sheaves


Maska offers 4 types of adjustable pulleys
MVL light duty (HVAC) single groove diameters 1.6 to 4.7 inches and suitable up to 5 H.P.
8000 series single and double groove medium duty diameters ranging from 2.3 to 7.3 inches and suitable up to 25 H.P VP series single and double groove medium duty diameters ranging from 1.6 to 7.4 inches and suitable up to 25 H.P. MVS 2 grooves heavy duty up to 40 H.P. diameters 3.4 to 9.0 inches

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Maska - Adjustable pitch sheaves

All of Maska adjustable pulleys are made of cast iron offering the best quality. Close tolerances of the threads on hubs are controlled for run-out In double groove series, when flanges are backed off an equal number of turns, the gap is identical on both sides making both belts pull equally.

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2. V-belt pulleys & Maska characteristics 8000 & VP series


The VP series is equivalent to 8000 series. The 8000 series generally offers a wider range of speed. Designed for A (4L), B (5L) and 5V belts. Offers half turn adjustment up to 6 turns. All made of gray cast iron

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2. Sheaves & Maska characteristics Variable pulley adjustment


Should be selected from the mid pitch diameter. Two groove pulleys are machined precisely to have the same pitch on both sides.

Fig 2.32: Ratio variation Close and Open

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MASKA BELTS

MASKA BLUEFLEX V-BELT

V-Belt construction
(1) COVER
(2) INSULATING COUMPOND (3) TENSION MEMBERS (4) COMPRESSION AREA 1

2
4

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2. Sheaves & Maska characteristics Classical V-belt


Used for heavy-duty and also light duty (Belts A & B).

Large selection of cross-sections available. Coupled with other identical cross-sections, these belts can transmit up to hundreds of hp units.

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2. Sheaves & Maska characteristics Narrow V-belt Recommended for drive systems that require compact design, with higher speed and increased horsepower. Drive system can be designed with shorter centers and smaller sheaves. Overall drive dimensions can be reduced by as much as 40%. 3V covers A&B, 5V covers B&C and 8V covers D&E cross-sections.

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2. Sheaves & Maska characteristics Cogged V-belt

Belt flexibility increased and a larger surface contact for heat dissipation. Better torque capacity even in high-speed operations. Less slippage.

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2. Sheaves & Maska characteristics Banded V-belt Recommended for applications with verticallymounted shafts or extended center-to-center distances.
Assures lateral rigidity and guides the belts into the pulley walls in a straight line. Designed for heavy-duty drives where shock loading is a problem and where multiple matched single belts tend to roll over or jump off the groove.

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3. Limits of design What limits?

STOP

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3. Limits of design SPEED LIMITATIONS

MATERIAL

STRENGTH

MAX SPEED

Cast Iron

30,000 psi

6500 ft/min 9500 ft/min

Ductile Iron 65,000 psi

V-Belt drives are not recommended to run above 9,000 ft/min or below 1,500 ft/min

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3. Limits of design Maximum & minimum center distance

Minimum: diameter of the largest sheave. Maximum: 3 times the sum of both sheaves or 5 times the largest sheave.

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3. Limits of design Maximum ratio

1:6 is known to be the maximum recommended ratio for a V-belt drive.


Higher ratios like 1:7 can be obtained with cogged and small section belts (3VX).

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3. Limits of design Normal belt & sheave life

5,000 to 7,000 hours for belts


25,000 hours for sheaves

Belts are generally replaced 4 times before replacing sheaves (generally driven pulleys)

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4. Drive optimization tips Designing new drives

Criteria to optimize
Design horsepower / Safety factor
Center distance long and short center distance must be avoided. Reducing Costs

Select reasonable parameters for a V-belt drive (ratio, speeds and HP)
Section belt selections

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4. Drive optimization tips Efficient speed for a V-belt drive

OPERATION SPEEDS FOR V-BELT DRIVES

Ideal speed : 4500 ft/min Normal range: 1500 6500 ft/min

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4. Drive optimization tips Reducing hub loads


Nema standards for minimum pulley diameter

Optimized safety factor (Bearings are not overcharged)


Standard mounting assembly Proper belt tension Select the next size pulley that will cut off one groove. Make a compromise with price.

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4. Drive optimization tips Arc of contact

For efficient operations, the minimum belt wrap, or arc of contact, of the smallest pulley should be 120 degrees. The maximum arc of contact that can be obtained is 180 degrees. For larger ratios, an idler pulley may be necessary.

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4. Drive optimization tips Service factor for speed-up

Increases by 20% the service factor Slippage and higher torque demands on starting operations. Smaller pulley is on the load side.

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4. Drive optimization tips RMA minimum recommended diameter


Classic belt Minimum section datum diam. A AX B BX C 3.0 2.2 5.4 4.0 9.0 Narrow belt Minimum section pulley diam. 3V 3VX 5V 5VX 8V 2.65 2.2 7.1 4.4 12.5

CX

6.8

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4. Drive optimization tips Installation Procedures

Clean all surfaces (grooves, taper hub, shafts, etc.) Verify alignment Proper Belt tension Check tension after 48 hours

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4. Drive optimization tips Belt tensioning Too much tension can cause excessive wear on belts & bearings.
Too little tension allows slippage, loss of power & additional wear.

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4. Drive Optimization Tips Checking Sheave Grooves for wear Worn grooves cause one or more belts to ride lower than the others, resulting in premature wear of belts & reduced performance levels (see Figure below) If wear is premature, could be caused by misalignment. Signs of wear:
One or more belts are slack while others are tight? Bottom of the groove is shiny? Belts wear out quickly?

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4. Drive Optimization Tips Checking Sheave Grooves for wear How to check for wear quickly?
Maska sheave & belt gage is an inexpensive tool that can be inserted in the groove until the rim touches the flange. If more than 1/32" wear, replace the sheave (see Figure below). The cost of replacing the part is soon offset by the number of belts that will be quickly ruined by rounded sidewalls. Resulting belt problems touching bottom and slipping, reduced wedging action & less gripping power.

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4. Drive optimization tips Special Environments

Maska blueflex belts have ORS construction Heat resistance Oil Resistance Static conducting
For hazardous environments, additional protection is recommended such as grounding the entire system to ensure against accidental static spark discharges Cogged belts at higher temperature or linked belts between 140 & 180 for smaller drives.

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SYNCHRONOUS BELT DRIVES

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5.1 What is a Synchronous Drive?


Used when indexing, positioning or a constant speed ratio is required. Drive that runs without slippage (positive drive) THREE CATEGORIES OF SYNCHRONOUS DRIVES: A) Synchronous Belt Drive B) Gear drive C) Chain drive C)

A)

B)

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5.2 Advantages of a Synchronous Belt Drive


No lubrication required Clean & low maintenance Low-stretch tensile cord nearly eliminating the need for re-tensioning Eliminate noise problems of chain drives Long life expectancy when well designed Smooth engagement of belt with pulley allows high speeds Less weight compared to chain and gear drives for same horsepower requirements Can operate in wet environments

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5.3 Synchronous belt drive applications

AUTOMATIC MACHINERY
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5.4 Synchronous Belt Drive Applications

FOOD PROCESSING Bottling machines, pumps,


bucket elevators, belt conveyors, mixers, mills, & meat grinders

PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES Air coolers, dryers, compressors,


& pumps

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5.5 Synchronous belts


Standard/Trapezoidal Synchronous belt

H.T.B. / Curvilinear Synchronous Belt

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5.5.1 Timing Belt v.s. H.T.B.

Optimizing tooth profile - H.T.B. design


Better load transfer to tensile members Closer tooth spacing for more power transmitted

Minimize strains in corner and bond surface


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5.5.3 Belt size designation


Standard/Trapezoidal Synchronous Belt

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5.5.5 Belt size designation

MASKA BLUE FLEX DESIGNATION

TB = TIMING BELT

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5.5.6 Belt size designation


H.T.B. / Curvilinear Synchronous Belt

560 (mm) -----Pitch length

8M Tooth pitch

------

30 (mm) Belt Width

2800 (mm) -----Pitch length

14M Tooth pitch

------

55 (mm) Belt Width

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5.5.7 Belt size designation

MASKA BLUE FLEX DESIGNATION

HTB = HIGH TORQUE BELT


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5.5.8 Synchronous belts manufacturers

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5.6 Synchronous belt pulleys

TIMING PULLEYS
H.T.D. SPROCKETS

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5.7 Synchronous Belt Pulleys


Sheaves come in several forms, being either block (B), webbed (W) or arm design (A), depending on the outside diameter.

Block
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Webbed

Ar m

Selection of Flanged Pulleys


On synchronous drives, the minimum flanging requirement are two flanges on the smaller pulley or one flange on each pulley at the opposite side. When the center distance is more than 8 times the diameter of the small pulley, both pulleys should be flanged. On every vertical shaft drive, one pulley should be flanged on both sides and the other pulley should be flanged on the bottom side. For multiple drive applications, any other additional pulley than the two existing should have two flanges or at least one flange on the opposite side.

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Timing Pulley - Part # designation

P16H150-1108
P = PULLEY

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H.T.D. Sprockets - Part # designation

P24-8M-30-JA
P = PULLEY

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5.8 Synchronous Drive (Pulleys)


The smaller pulley must have at least six teeth in mesh with the belt to respect standard HP rating. The belt width should not exceed the pulley diameter. 6500 feet per minute max. rim speed.

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