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Organization Process Approaches

Chapter 13 Cummings & Worley

Organization Change Approaches Method


Strategic Issues

Technology & Structure Issues Target of Change

Human Resource Issues

Human Process Issues

Individual, Interpersonal & Group Approaches

Organization Confrontation Meeting Intergroup Conflict Resolution

Organization Approaches

Intergroup Conflict Intervention

Microcosm Groups Large-group Intervention

Learning Objectives
To understand three types of system-wide, human process interventions: the organization confrontation meeting, intergroup relations interventions, and largegroup interventions To review and understand the effectiveness of these interventions in producing change

Cummings & Worley, 8e (c)2005 Thomson/South-Western

13-3

Characteristics of Organization Intervention Approaches


Organization Confrontation Meeting
Condition: when organization is in stress & there is a gap between the top & the rest of organization Method: the entire organization to identify problem, set priorities & action targets & begin working on identified problem, often combined with other approaches, such as survey feedback Result: positive/impressive in mobilizing organization problem identification and solution using total resources of organization little systematic study to proof result

Intergroup Conflict Interventions


Microcosm Groups Condition: when there is diversity problems/ particular issues, such as communication or racerelations Method: assigning small number of individuals to create programs & processes targeted at specific issues, work through parallel processes Result: better ways of communication, such as in meetings, employee orientations. And better perceptions on racerelations issues

Intergroup Conflict Resolution Condition: dysfunctional conflicts between groups or departments Method: external consultant and the two conflict groups work together Result: attitudinal change the perceptions that each group have on each other

Large-Group Interventions
Condition: solving particular organization problems to envisioning future strategic directions and focusing on the organizations potential rather than its problems, Method: bringing together of large numbers of organization members and other stakeholders into outside meeting or conference. Two types of large-group meeting: OpenSystem Methods and Open-Space Methods Result: New approach design to structuring and managing the firm

Case Study: Improving Relationships in


Johnson & Johnsons Drug Evaluation Department
J & J VISION
Goal: Rapidly generate data that allows J&J to make the best investment decisions about drug portfolio The bridge between discovery of new compounds and full development of a new drug

R&D Robert Wood Johnson New Jersey

Drug Evaluation (DE) Organization

R&D Jansen Research Foundation Belgium

Chemical Pharmaceuticals

Clinical Drug Evaluation

Clinical Operations

Portfolio Planning & Resource Mgmt PPRM

Case Study: Improving Relationships in


Johnson & Johnsons Drug Evaluation Department
Current Situation
Financial Customer IBP Limited selection of J&J new product Less drug portfolio ineffective product development (less cohesion between PPRM & CDE) Lack of agreement between project champions of PPRM & clinical specialist of CDE Financial Customer

Intended Situation
Growing market share Increasing selection of J&J products

IBP

Good performance of drug portfolio effective product development


Agreement between project champions of PPRM & clinical specialist of CDE Improved Relations

L&G

L&G

ORGANIZATION PROCESS INTERVENTION RESOLVING INTERGROUP CONFLICT

Resolving Intergroup Conflict Using General Model of Planned Change J&J Case
Entering & Contracting

Groups and consultant convene to address issues


Seven different themes emerged from the data, no single issue dominated Conduct 3-day offsite meeting involving PPRM & CDE members to work through the data and concerns

Resolving Intergroup Conflict Using General Model of Planned Change J&J Case
Diagnosing Groups are asked to address three questions
What What What What

do we want from you? dont we want from you? do we offer/give you? we dont over/give you?

Groups discussion over the above questions perceptions were shared, discussed and resolved
Typical responses : we want your expertise; we want everyone to be a part of the team; we want input, support and agreement, adequate time, and frequent interaction The group did not want surprise decisions, delayed or filtered information, and responsibility for anothers job

Resolving Intergroup Conflict Using General Model of Planned Change J&J Case
Planning and Large group discussion to discuss key issue Implementing facilitated by OD practitioner Change To resolve the decision-making process

Groups work to develop action plans on key areas


Understanding the background that were contributing to the strained decision-making process Agree on a variety of important roles and responsibilities

Resolving Intergroup Conflict Using General Model of Planned Change J&J Case
Evaluating The two groups reported improved relations and & increased trust Institution Positive, cooperative attitudes alizing Change