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Group Members:

Muhammad Yousaf Khan


Syed Aqeel Ahmad
Masood-ur-Rahman
Muhammad Shahzad
Introduction

PCI Express Bus I/O


Technology
Brief History
Conventional PCI
Initial PCI 1.0 proposal by Intel in 1991
Introduced by PCI-SIG as PCI 2.0 in 1993
Version 2.1 approved in 1995
Recent version 2.3 approved in March 2002
PCI-X
Version 1.0 approved in September 1999
Version 2.0 approved in July 2002
PCI Express
Formerly known as 3GIO
Version 1.0 approved in July 2002
Design Consideration
 System design
System architecture, Embedded CPU h/w design
 PCB design
Functional design, PCB timing
 PCB physical design
PCB place and route, design for manufacturing
 FPGA design
Verilog HDL development
 DSP design
 Algorithm development
 Embedded software development
Why chose PCI
Express
PCI has limitation such as
o Multidrop timeshared concept
o Power and ground noise
o Stubs
o Trace skews
o Skin effect
o Dielectric loss
PCI Express is dual simplex point to point
serial differential low voltage interconnect
Bit rate is 2.5Gbit/sec/lan/dir
Signal is 8b or 10b encoded with embedded
clock
Each layer has two pair of differential signal
Switches to interconnect devices
Hot Plug Support
High Speed Design
Issues
Interconnect losses
Crosstalk
Mode conversion
Layered architecture of PCI
Express

Transaction Layer Transaction Layer

Data Link Layer Data Link Layer

Physical Layer Physical Layer

TX RX TX RX
Packet flow through
layers
Start Seq.# Header Data ECRC LCRC End
Transaction layer
 The upper Layer of the architecture is the
Transaction Layer.
 The Transaction Layer’s primary responsibility is the
assembly and disassembly of Transaction Layer
Packets (TLPs).
 TLPs are used to communicate transactions, such as
read and write, as well as certain types of events.
 The Transaction Layer is also responsible for
managing credit-based flow control for TLPs.
Data Link Layer
 The middle Layer in the stack, the Data Link
Layer, serves as an intermediate stage
between the Transaction Layer and the
Physical Layer.
 The primary responsibilities of the Data Link
Layer include Link management and data
integrity, including error detection and error
correction
Physical Layer
 The Physical Layer includes all circuitry for interface
operation, including driver and input buffers, parallel-to-
serial and serial-to-parallel conversion, PLL(s), and
impedance matching circuitry.
 It includes also logical functions related to interface
initialization and maintenance.
 The Physical Layer exchanges information with the Data
Link Layer in an implementation-specific format.
 This Layer is responsible for converting information
received from the Data Link Layer into an appropriate
serialized format and transmitting it across the PCI
Express Link at a frequency and width compatible with
the device connected to the other side of the Link.
Cyclic Redundancy Check
 While traveling a cross a link data can loose
integrity and my be prone to errors.
 Cyclic redundancy codes are used to preserve the
integrity of data in storage and transmission
applications.
 It is an error coding technique which involves
addition of a certain amount of redundancy to the
data in a controlled fasion.
 In simple hardware applications CRCs are
implemented by simply using shift register circuit
in which one bit is processed at a time .
Addition of Redundancy
 Following is an overview of how the redundancy is
added given block of data.

# .Seq TLP LCRC value


bits 16 bits 16 bits 32

Link Layer Packetizing


LCRC Generator Circuit
Schemati
cs
Applicatio
ns:
Desktop
Mobile
Server
Storage
Embedded
Communications
Military Use