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# Sampling 3

Sasmita Mishra
Non-Probability Sampling

##  It does not afford any basis for

estimating the probability that each
element in the population has equal
chance of being included in the sample
 It is mainly based upon the judgment of
the researcher
Purposive Sampling
 It is also called ‘deliberate sampling’ or ‘judgment
sampling’.
 Here the researcher deliberately selects certain units
for study from the universe

## According to Adolph Jenson, “purposive selection

denotes the method of selecting a number of groups
of units in such a way that the selected groups
together yield as nearly as possible the same
averages or proportion as the totality with respect to
these characteristics which are already a matter of
statistical knowledge.
Merits of Purposive Sampling
 Under proper controls and safeguards this
method can prove very useful. It is more
economical and less time-consuming.
 This method ensures proper representation of
a cross-section of various strata of the
universe if the researcher has full knowledge
of the composition of the universe.
 This method is very useful specially when
some of the units are very important and their
inclusion in the study is necessary.
 It is a practical method where randomization
is not possible
Demerits of Purposive Sampling
 Under this method prior knowledge of the
universe is necessary which in most cases is
not possible
 Controls and safeguards adopted under this
method are sometimes not effective and
there is very possibility of the selection of
biased samples
 Under this method the calculation of sample
errors is not possible.
Quota Sampling

##  Itis a special type of stratified sampling

 Under this method population is
stratified on some basis, preferably on
the basis of the characteristics of the
population under study. After this the
number of sample units to be selected
from each stratum is decided by the
researcher in advance.
Merits of Quota Sampling
 It is a stratified-cum-purposive sampling and
thus enjoys both above named method. It is a
practical and convenient method.
 If proper controls or checks are imposed on
the investigator, quota sampling is likely to
give accurate results.
 It is only useful method when no sample
frame is available.
Demerits of Quota Sampling
 This method suffers from the limitations of both stratified and
purposive sampling

 Control over field work is a very difficult task. Hence, the result
may be biased because of the personal beliefs and prejudices
of the investigator in the selection of the units under study

##  Since quota sampling is not based on random sampling, the

sampling error as well as standard error cannot be estimated.

 Since the samples are not randomly selected, they may not be
technically true representative of the universe.

##  The bias may also occur due to substitution of unlike sample

units.
Convenience Sampling
 It is known as unsystematic, careless, accidental or
opportunistic sampling
 Under this method a sample is selected according to the
convenience of the investigator.
 This convenience may be in respect of availability of
data,accessibility of the units etc.
 This method may be used in the following cases:
1. When the universe is not clearly defined
2. When sampling unit is not clear
3. When a complete source list is not available