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Suresh P.

Nair [AIE, ME, (PhD)] MIEEE Professor & Head Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Royal College of Engineering and Technology Chiramanangad PO, Akkikkavu, Thrissur, Kerala, India

Analog Communication


Tele (Far) + Communications Early telecommunications
smoke signals and drums visual telegraphy (or semaphore in 1792)

Telegraph and telephone

Telegraph (1839) Telephone (1876)

Radio and television Telephony

Voice and Data

Human Communication
Methods of communication:
1.Face to face
2.Written word (letters) 3.Electrical innovations: Telegraph Telephone Radio Television Internet (computer)

Communication Systems

A Communications Model

Basic Communication System

Basic Communication System

Basic components:
Transmitter Channel or medium Receiver

Noise degrades or interferes with transmitted information.

The transmitter is a collection of electronic components and circuits that converts the electrical signal into a signal suitable for transmission over a given medium.

Transmitters are made up of oscillators, amplifiers, tuned

circuits and filters, modulators, frequency mixers,

frequency synthesizers, and other circuits.

Communication Channel
The communication channel is the medium by which the electronic signal is sent from one place to another. Types of media include
Electrical conductors Optical media Free space System-specific media (e.g., water is the medium for sonar).

Physical Transmission Media

Physical Transmission Media

A receiver is a collection of electronic components and

circuits that accepts the transmitted message from the

channel and converts it back into a form understandable by humans. Receivers contain amplifiers, oscillators, mixers, tuned

circuits and filters, and a demodulator or detector that

recovers the original intelligence signal from the modulated carrier.

A transceiver is an electronic unit that incorporates circuits that both send and receive signals. Examples are:
Telephones Fax machines Cell phones Computer modems

Signal Attenuation
Signal attenuation, or degradation, exists in all
media of wireless transmission.

It is proportional to the square of the distance

between the transmitter and receiver.

Noise is random, undesirable electronic energy that enters the communication system via the communicating medium and interferes with the transmitted message.

Types of Electronic Communication

Electronic communications are classified according to whether they are
1. One-way (Simplex) or two-way (Half duplex or Full duplex) transmissions.
2. Analog or digital signals.

The simplest method of electronic communication is referred to as simplex. This type of communication is one-way. Examples are:
Radio TV broadcasting

Half Duplex
The form of two-way communication in which only one party transmits at a time is known as half duplex. Examples are:
Police, military, etc. radio transmissions Walky Talky HAM radio Morse Code

Full Duplex
Most electronic communication is twoway and is referred to as duplex.

When people can talk and listen simultaneously, it is called full duplex.
The telephone is an example of this type of communication.



Analog Communication

Digital Communication


To be transmitted, data must be transformed to electromagnetic signals.

Data can be analog or digital. The term analog data refers to information that is continuous. Digital data refers to information that has discrete states. Analog data take on continuous values. Digital data take on discrete values.

Comparison of analog and digital signals

Analog Signal

A typical sine wave


Frequency = Cycles/Second

Analog Signal

3 Basic Parameters of analog signal 1. Amplitude 2. Frequency 3. Phase

Two signals with the same phase and frequency, but different amplitudes

Frequency is the rate of change of cycle (Positive and Negative) with respect to time. Change in a short span of time means high frequency. Change over a long span of time means low frequency.


If a signal does not change at all, its frequency is zero. If a signal changes instantaneously, its frequency is infinite.

Two signals with the same amplitude and phase, but different frequencies

3 Sine waves with frequencies 0, 8 & 16


Phase describes the position of the waveform relative to time 0.

Three sine waves with the same amplitude and frequency, but different phases

Units of period and frequency

Practical Case Composite Signal

Frequency Spectrum Defined

Available range of frequencies for communication
Starts from low frequency communication such as voice and progresses to high frequency communication such as satellite communication

The spectrum spans the entire bandwidth of communicable frequencies

Frequency Spectrum
Low Frequency
Radio Frequency MHz Coaxial Cable

High Frequency

Voice KHz

Satellite Transmission GHz Microwave

Bandwidth Definition
Bandwidth, in general, represents a range of frequencies
Bandwidth is 400 MHz

300 MHz

700 MHz

Bandwidth and Signal Frequency

The bandwidth of a composite signal is
the difference between the highest and the lowest frequencies contained in that signal.

Communication Capacity
Bandwidth is indicative communication capacity of the

Communication speed is proportional to bandwidth

Units used to represent bandwidth are Hz, bps etc.

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Figure 1-13: The electromagnetic spectrum.