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DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Arba P. Ramadani

Basic processes

Ingestion

Secretion

Mixing&propulsion

Defecation

Absorption

digestion

THE GI SYSTEM
MOUTH

HORMON HORMON

FOOD
SUBLINGUAL AND SUBMANDIBULAR SALIVARY GLANDS

BRAIN PAROTID SALIVARY GLAN TRACHEA VOLUNTARY

INVOLUNTARY LIVER

GALLBLADDER

STOMACH PANCREAS

SMALL INTESTINE LARGE INTESTINE RECTUM ANUS

Layer of the GI tract


GI tract wall has same basic from lower esophagus anal canal

Mucosa

Submucosa Layers

Serosa

Muscularis

GI tract

Accessories

Organs

THE GI DIAGRAM

Heart
Liver Stomach
ABSORPTION Vitamin Karbonhidrat Protein C, D, B2, B12, dll asam, dll Mineral Lipid SECRETION

Mouth

Hepatic Portal vein

Anus
Vitamin K Air, Elektrolit
FLATUS Pembentukan Gas CO2, Metana, dll

Rectum

Food and water


Salivary glands

enzim

FECES
Aktifitas BAKTERI

Small intestine

Large intestine

MOTILITY

Mouth

Oral cavity Salivary gland


Saliva

cheek Hard&soft -palate

parotid, submandibular, sublingual

Saliva:99.5% water+0.5% solutes (ion, K+, Cl-, HCO3-, PO42- )

Mouth
Salivation
Mechanical Chemical
parasympathetic, sympathetic, feel&taste food

mastication, bolus

salivary amylase, lingual lipase

NAMES AND LOCATION OF THE MAJOR SALIVARY GLAND IN THE HUMAN

Parotid duct Parotid gland

Sublingual gland

Submandibular gland

Pharynx
throat oropharynx & laryngopharynx respiratory & digestive function

Esophagus
Secrete mucus & transport food into the stomach Deglutionesophageal stageperistalsis Sphincter-upper & lower esophageal

MOVEMENTS OF FOOD THROUGH THE PHARYNX AND UPPER ESOPHAGUS DURING SWALLOWING
Hard Palate Soft Palate

Pharynx

Epiglottis Upper esophageal sphincter Esophagus

Tongue

Stomach
Function: Mixes saliva, food, & gastric juice chyme Reservoir for food Secrete gastric juice HCl, pepsin, intrinsic factor, gastric lipase Secrete gastrin into blood

THE THREE REGIONS OF THE STOMACH : FUNDUS, BODY, AND ATRIUM


Esophagus Fundus Body (secretes mucus Pepsinogen and HCI)

Duodenum

Pyloric sphincter

Atrium (secretes mucus Pepsinogen and gastrin)

PERISTALTIC WAVES CONTRIBUTE TO THE ANTRAL CONTENTS


Lower Esophageal sphincter Duodenum

Esophagus

Pyloric sphincter

Stomach

Peristaltic wave

Mechanical
Mixing wave

Chemical
HCl, pepsinogen, gastric lipase

Stomach emptying
2-4 hours after meals

Sphincter: cardia &pyloric

HCl

denatures protein, stimulate secretion of hormone


+HCl pepsin break down AA into peptide fragment splits short chain TG FA & monoglycerides

Pepsinogen
Gastric lipase

Pancreas
Retroperitoneal gland Pancreatic juice & pancreatic islets Pancreatic juice (inactive form) Pancreatic amylase Trypsinogen trypsin Chymotrypsinogen chymotrypsin Procarboxypeptidase carboxypeptidase Proelastase elastase Pancreatic lipase Ribonuclease Deoxyribonuclease

Liver & Gallbladder


Liver heaviest gland of the body, right & left lobe Gallbladder pear-shaped sac, posterior surface of the liver Component:
Hepatocyte Bile canaliculi Hepatic sinusoid

Function of the liver


Carbohydrate metabolism - normal blood glucose Lipid metabolism - store TG, break down FA, synthesize lipoproteins & cholesterol Protein metabolism deaminate AA, synthesize most plasma proteins Processing of drugs & hormones detoxify Excretion of bilirubin Synthesis of bile salt Storage glycogen, vitamins, minerals Phagocytosis aged RBC, WBC, bacteria Activation of vitamin D

Small intestine