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# Review of Basic Electronics and Components

## Fundamentals of Mechatronics Engineering 8/28/08

Basic Equations

Basic Equations
P=I*V=I^2*R=V^2/R Capacitor: I=C*dV/dt Inductor: V=L*dI/dt

Voltage Divider
Use to scale down voltages or perform analog math V1=R1/(R1+R2)*Vs Use large V2=R2/(R1+R2)*Vs resistance values
to limit current through R1,R2 R1 Vs Read value here: such as to A/D

R2

AC signals

V=A*sin(w*t+phi) A=Peak amplitude W=frequency Note: how at any moment in time, w*t will just be an angle Phi=offset (phase lag). Thus choice of sine function is arbritary convention as could use cos with phi=90

AC Signals

Power Factor

Resistors
Wire lead single resistors have value indicated by color code Not all resistors use color codeIn this case the value will be printed on the resitor. DIP resistor chips may have value printed or have code that you must look up on manufacturer data sheet to determine value Surface mounted resistors are printed with numerical values in a code related to that used on axial resistors. Standard-tolerance Surface Mount Technology (SMT) resistors are marked with a three-digit code, in which the first two digits are the first two significant digits of the value and the third digit is the power of ten (the number of zeroes). For example: "334"= 33 10,000 ohms = 330

Capacitors

More capacitors

## Circuit elements in combination

Resistance in series simply add. Resistance in parallel follow this equation Same equation for inductors in series

## Shortcut equation for 2 resistance in parallel

Electronics packaging
Wire Lead SIP=Single inline package DIP=Dual in inline package Surface Mount: No pins, solders directly to PCB tabs
Within Surface mount, there are many package designs such as TQFP=Thin Quad Flat Package Differences in spacing of pins, profile of package, and material of package (plastic, ceramic)

## Tab on chips indicates front of chip

Connectors
IDC=Insulation Displacement Connector
Uses Ribbon Cable

D sub(minature)
Dsub 9 standard serial cable Other sizes, 25, 37

## Terminal Blocks Circular Connectors

Amphenol makes a lot of these

## Connectors can have wires soldered together or pinned

Pin connections require a special crimping tool (downside) Pin connections are secure, dont have to worry about bad solder joint, and simple to remove (upside)

## And much, much, more

Heat Sinks
Although discrete components like microchips and small transistors use very little power, they also are very tiny so they can become quite hot. If they get to hot they will become damaged.
This is way computer mPs use finned heatsinks and fans. Regulators, power transistors, and other devices use small heat sinks to help dissipate the heat

## LM7805 5 volt regulator

A quick story: Once I was using a 5 volt regulator in a circuit and it was quite hot. I pulled the regulator out to inspect something and then replaced it backwards. When I powered the circuit, it exploded in my face! Modified Carpenters Adage: Check you data sheet twice and install component once.

Datasheets
Every part will have a datasheet that you will need to consult
Make sure you get the exact variation of the part Make sure the part fits your needs
Supplies enough current Dissipates the power you expect to put through it

## DataSheet for the LM741 Op Amp

The extra letters on the end of the basic part number usually denote different package and temperature range (commercial, military)

Wiring Diagram
Without this, how would you know how to hook it up? Vcc=Supply voltage

NC=No connect
Vee=ground

Max current=40 mA

Homework