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# STATISTICS

## Help decision makers extract maximum usefulness from limited information

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
GIVE INFORMATION OR DESCRIBE THE SAMPLE

## Techniques for the collection and effective presentation of numerical information

MEAN

VARIANCE
STANDARD DEVIATION

INFERENTIAL STATISTICS
INFERENCES OF THE POPULATION FROM MEAN AND VARIANCE

## Techniques for analyzing numerical information

t test; F test ANOVA

CHI-SQUARE TEST

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
TOOLS FOR DATA INTERPRETATION

Compare the means relative to the degree of variation among scores in each group to determine the probability that the calculated differences between the means reflect real differences between subject groups and not chance occurrences

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
TOOLS FOR DATA INTERPRETATION

Difference between two means is significant at 0.05 level of significance implies a probability of less than 5 out of 100 that the difference is due to chance

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
WHAT IS BEING DESCRIBED

## Dispersion/ Variability Range Standard Dev. Variance Range

Relationship Contingency coefficient Rank order correlation coef. Pearson product moment correlation

## MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY MEAN

Average, computed by adding a list of scores and then dividing by the number of scores.
X -------N

## MEASURES OF DISPERSION STANDARD DEVIATION

Measure of the spread of a set of scores
NX2 (X)2 -------------------N(N 1)

s =

## s standard deviation X sum of the individual scores N number of scores

INFERENTIAL STATISTICS
DEPEND ON HYPOTHESES AND SCALE OF VARIABLE

PARAMETRIC TESTS STATISTICAL TEST t - test HYPOTHESIS TESTED About a single mean Difference between 2 means

One-way ANOVA

Two-way ANOVA

Two or more population means are equal single independent variable Two or more population means are equal two independent variables

PARAMETRIC TEST
EMPLOY INTERVAL MEASUREMENT OF THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE

## Normal distribution Homogeneity of variance Continuous equal interval measures

INFERENTIAL STATISTICS
DEPEND ON HYPOTHESES AND SCALE OF VARIABLE

NON-PARAMETRIC TESTS STATISTICAL TEST Chi-square test HYPOTHESIS TESTED Two variables are independent Medians of two or more population are equal No difference in the scores from two population

Mann-Whitney U-test

## Two population correlation coefficients are equal

NON-PARAMETRIC TEST
BASED ON NOMINAL OR ORDINAL MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES

Require neither normal distributions or equal group variances Useful for large samples that dont satisfy assumptions for parametric techniques For very small samples and for studies involving ordinal measuring devices

## SELECTING A STATISTICAL TEST

TYPE AND NUMBER OF INDEPENDENT VARIABLES INTERVAL 1 Type And Number Of Dependent Variables INTERVAL 0 1 Correlation More Than 1 Factor Analysis Multiple Correlation 1 ORDINAL More Than 1 1 Analysis of Variance, or t-Test NOMINAL More Than 1 Analysis of Variance
ROW 1

Transform ordinal variable into nominal and use C-1, or; Transform the interval variable into ordinal and use B-2, or; Transform both variables into nominal and use C-3.

## More Than 1 ORDINAL 0

Multiple Correlation

## Coefficient of Concordance (W) -

ROW 2

Transform ordinal variable into nominal and use C-1, or; Transform the interval variable into ordinal and use B-2, or; Transform the interval variable into nominal and use C-2.

## Spearman Correlation, Kendalls T -

Sign Test, Median Test, U-Test, Kruskal-Wallis Phi Coeff. , Fisher Exact Test, Chi-Square -

## More Than 1 NOMINAL 0 1 Analysis of Variance -

Sign Test, Median Test, U-Test, Kruskal-Wallis Friedmans Two-Way Analysis of Variance COLUMN B

More Than 1

Analysis of Variance

COLUMN A

COLUMN C

## COMMON STATISTICAL TESTS

EVALUATE THE MATCH BETWEEN DATA FROM TWO OR MORE SAMPLES

t - test

Analysis of variance

Nominal independent variable and ordinal dependent variable with two conditions or levels More than two conditions or more than one independent variable

Chi-square statistic

## Two nominal variables

Spearman rank-order Two ordinal variables correlation Pearson product Two interval variables moment correlation Mann-Whitney U-test Nominal independent variable and ordinal dependent variable

t Test Statistic
TEST WHETHER THE MEANS OF THE TWO GROUPS ARE SIMILAR

Determine the probability that the difference between the two means reflects a real difference between the groups of subjects rather than a chance variation in data
X1 X2 ----------------------------------------------(N1 1)S12 + (N2 1)S22 x N1 + N2 N1 + N2 1 N1 N 2

t Test Worksheet
GROUP N = I II X = X2 = X =
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Compute group variances N1X12 (X1)2 N2X22 (X2)2 S12 = --------------------------: S22 = --------------------------N1(N1 1) N2(N2 1) Calculate t-value (N1 1) S12 + (N2 1) S22 ---------------------------------- = _______ N1 + N2 2 (N1 + N2)/N1N2 = _______ (Step 1 x Step 2) = _______ (Step 3)1/2 = _______ X1 X2 = _______ t = Step 5/Step 4 = ________ df = N1 + N2 2 = ________ Look up t-value in Table for Critical Values of t = ___; p = 0.05

## If computed t-value exceeds the tabular value, null hypothesis is rejected.

t Test Worksheet
GROUP I Response Categories Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree X1 5 4 3 2 f 5 8 12 3 fX1 25 32 36 6 fX12 125 128 108 12 X2 5 4 3 2 GROUP II f 7 10 6 3 fX2 35 40 18 6 fX22 175 160 54 12

Strongly disagree
Total

2
30 N1

2
101 X1

2
375 X12

4
30 N2

4
103 X2

4
405 X22

t Test Worksheet
GROUP N = I
30 101 375 3.37

II
30 103 405 3.43

X = X2 = X =

## If computed t-value exceeds the tabular value, null hypothesis is rejected.

Compute group variances N1X12 (X1)2 N2X22 (X2)2 S12 = --------------------------: S22 = --------------------------N1(N1 1) N2(N2 1) S12 = 1.21 S22 = 1.77 Calculate t-value (N1 1) S12 + (N2 1) S22 ---------------------------------- = 1.49 N1 + N2 2 2. (N1 + N2)/N1N2 = 0.07 3. (Step 1 x Step 2) = 0.104 4. (Step 3)1/2 = 0.32 5. X1 X2 = 0.06 6. t = Step 5/Step 4 = 0.1875 df = N1 + N2 2 = 58 Look up t-value in Table for Critical Values of t = 2.00 p = 0.05

Chi-Square Statistic
MOST WIDELY USED NON-PARAMETRIC TEST OF SIGNIFICANCE

Useful for nominal data but can also be used for higher scales Apply to cases where persons, events or objects are grouped together into two or more nominal categories such as yes-no, favor-undecided-against, or class A, B, C, D Calculated with actual counts

Chi-Square Statistic
MOST WIDELY USED NON-PARAMETRIC TEST OF SIGNIFICANCE

Applied to test of significance between the observed distribution of data among categories and expected distribution Examine questions of relationship Used in one-sample analysis, two independent samples, or k-independent samples

Chi-Square Statistic
ONE-SAMPLE CASE ANALYSIS

FORMULA:

2 (O E ) i i k = ------------i=1 Ei

## O observed frequencies E expected frequencies

Chi-Square Statistic
ONE-SAMPLE CASE ANALYSIS

A survey of senior officers interest in pursuing the OSEC was conducted. The researcher had interviewed 200 officers and learned of their intentions to join the OSEC. Responses were classified into four categories, as shown: PURPOSE Increase knowledge Need for promotion Relaxation from job Save money TOTAL INTEND TO PURSUE OSEC 16 13 16 15 60 NO. INTERVIEWED 90 40 40 30 200

Chi-Square Statistic
ONE-SAMPLE CASE ANALYSIS
Purpose Join OSEC 16 No. Interviewed 90 Percent (N/200) 45 Expected Frequency (% x 60) 27

Knowledge

Null hypothesis: The proportion of the population who intend to join the OSEC is independent of the purpose. Calculate the expected distribution by determining that proportion of the 200 respondents were in each group. Apply the proportion to the number who intend to join the OSEC. Calculate chi-square: x2 = 9.89 df = k 1 = 4 -1 = 3

Relaxation
Promotion Save

13
16 15 60

40
40 30 200

20
20 15 100

12
12 9 60

(O - E)2 X2 = ---------------------E
(1627)2 (13-12)2 (16-12)2 (15-9)2 X2 = ----------- + ----------- + ----------- + ---------27 12 12 9

D. Obtain the critical test value for x2 considering df = 3; p = 0.05 x2 = 7.82 Decision: Reject hypothesis

Chi-Square Statistic
TWO-SAMPLE CASE ANALYSIS

FORMULA:

2 (O E ) i i k = ------------i=1 Ei

## O observed frequencies E expected frequencies

Appropriate for situation in which a test for differences between samples is required.

Chi-Square Statistic
TWO-SAMPLE CASE ANALYSIS

An officer has become interested in whether drinking alcohol has some deleterious effects on police behavior. He wonder whether drinking alcohol triggers police misdemeanors.

## ALCOHOL DRINKER Heavy Moderate Non-drinker

YES 12 9 13

NO 4 6 22

TOTAL

34

32

Chi-Square Statistic
TWO SAMPLE CASE ANALYSIS
Alcohol Drinker Heavy Moderate Non-drinker Column Total YES 12 9 13 34 NO 4 6 22 32 Row Total 16 15 35 66

Null hypothesis: There is no difference in police misdemeanor occurrences between alcohol drinker and nondrinker. Calculate the expected observations in each cell by multiplying the two marginal totals common to a particular cell and dividing this product by the total observations. Calculate chi-square: x2 = 6.86 df = (r 1)(c 1) = (3-1)(2-1) = 2 D. Obtain the critical test value for x2 considering df = 2; p = 0.05 x2 = 5.99 Decision: Reject hypothesis

## Alcohol Drinker Heavy

YES 8.24

NO 7.76

Row Total 16

Moderate
Non-drinker Column Total
(128.24)2 (9-7.73)2

7.73
18.03 34

7.27
16.97 32

15
35 66

(13-18.03)2

## (4-7.76)2 (6-7.27)2 (22-16.97)2

X2 = ------------ + ----------- + --------------- + ----------- + ---------- + -------------8.24 7.73 18.03 7.76 7.27 16.97

Chi-Square Statistic
SAMPLE CASE ANALYSIS A researcher is interested in student attitude toward compulsory attendance to OSEC recreational games. A random sample of students is drawn from each of the four classes of the National Police College. The students in the sample are then asked to respond whether they strongly agree, agree or disagree to compulsory attendance

CLASS
OSEC 60

STRONGLY AGREE
12

AGREE
48

DISAGREE
20

TOTAL
80

OSEC 61
OSEC 62 OSEC 63 TOTAL

7
6 5 30

20
19 3 90

33
35 32 120

60
60 40 240

Chi-Square Statistic
SAMPLE CASE ANALYSIS
CLASS O-60 O-61 O-62 O-63 TOTAL SD 12 7 6 5 30 A 48 20 19 3 90 D 20 33 35 32 120 TOTAL 80 60 60 40 240

Null Hypothesis: The four class populations do not differ in their attitude toward compulsory attendance to OSEC recreational games.

## Determine the value of the expected outcome, E = (kr)/N

Compute chi-square value: x2 = 40.28 df = (r 1)(c 1) = 6

## C. Obtain the critical test value:

CLASS O-60 O-61 O-62 O-63 TOTAL SD 10 7.5 7.5 5 30 A 30 22.5 22.5 15 90 D 40 30 30 20 120 TOTAL 80 60 60 40 240

x2 = 12.59
p = 0.05 Conclusion: Class and attitude toward compulsory attendance to OSEC recreational games are related (not independent) in the student population. The null hypothesis is rejected.

Chi-Square Statistic
SAMPLE CASE ANALYSIS

To study whether a relationship may exist between level of investigative competence and the amount of education received by the investigators.

## Barely Competent 54 106 82 242

Incompetent 12 28 51 91

## TOTAL 141 198 161 500

Chi-Square Statistic
SAMPLE CASE ANALYSIS
EDUC. HS BS MS TOTAL HC 75 64 28 167 BC 54 106 82 242 I 12 28 51 91 TOTAL 141 198 161 500

Determine the value of the expected outcome, E = (kr)/N Compute chi-square value: x2 = 59.37 df = (r 1)(c 1) = 4

## C. Obtain the critical test value:

EDUC. HS BS MS TOTAL HC 47 66 54 167 BC 68 96 78 242 I 26 36 29 91 TOTAL 141 198 161 500

x2 = 9.49
p = 0.05

Chi-Square Statistic
SAMPLE CASE ANALYSIS

Decide whether the four groups really differ in opinion concerning the components of a program toward crime prevention.

Police 83 37 120

LGU 67 33 100

## NGO 114 86 200

Civilian 95 55 150

## TOTAL 359 211 570

Chi-Square Statistic
SAMPLE CASE ANALYSIS
Program Foot patrol Motorized patrol TOTAL P 83 37 120 L 67 33 100 N 114 86 200 C 95 55 150 TOTAL 359 211 570

Determine the value of the expected outcome, E = (kr)/N Compute chi-square value: x2 = 5.55 df = (r 1)(c 1) = 4

## C. Obtain the critical test value:

Program Foot patrol Motorized patrol TOTAL P 76 44 120 L 63 37 100 N 126 74 200 C 94 56 150 TOTAL 359 211 570

x2 = 7.82
p = 0.05