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Discrete Control Logic 1.

Pneumatic circuits
- Low forces - Discrete, fixed travel distances - Rotational or reciprocating motion

Main components: compressor, valves, cylinders

Pneumatic components: cylinders


doubl e -acting

spri ng-return

ai r su pply vent to atmosp here (a ir di sch arge)

tepping away from this mat, the person has to manually switch the robot back ON

Pneumatic components: valves

a 3/2 valve
valve actuation

a 5/2 valve

return spring

pneumatic

foot pedal

push button

solen oid (el ectri cal )

roll er (mechani cal)

Simple Pneumatic control


START, A+, AA +

A-

A+ VA

Start

Pure Pneumatic control design: Cascade method


Example: Punch Press Operation: (i) part is clamped in position (ii) press punches the part (iii) the clamp is released (iv) part is removed from the table

START, A+, B+, B-, A-, C+, C-

Functions of A, B, C ? How to design pneumatic system?

Pure Pneumatic control design: Cascade method


(1) Write cylinder action sequence (2) Partition sequence into minimum no. of groups (no letter repeated in group) (3) Merge last group, first group (if possible)

(4) Each cylinder is double-acting


(5) Each cylinder is controlled by 5/2 valve (both pilot lines: pneumatic) (6) Each + and position of cylinder: limit valves (7) Each group => manifold line. The manifold line connects to the limit valves associated with the cylinders. (8) The air pressure in the manifolds is controlled by 5/2 valves called group valves. no. of group valves = (no of groups 1)

Cascade method: forming groups


START, A+, B+, B-, A-, C+, C-

Break it down into groups:


START, A+, B+ / B-, A-, C+ GRP 1 GRP 2 Merge Group 3 with Group 1 ? / CGRP 3

START, A+, B+ / B-, A-, C+ GRP 1 GRP 2

/ CGRP 1

Cascade method: draw cylinders, manifolds, valves

- Draw the cylinders - For each cylinder, draw the limit valve (3/2 way) - For each cylinder, draw the control valve - Draw manifold lines - Limit valve connections: a2, b2 and c1 get their air supply from manifold 1 a1, b1 and c2 get their air supply from manifold 2 - Group valve connections: air supply: initially to GRP 1 (manifold 1), when pilot line 1 is active. line 1: activated by c2 (transition from GRP 2 GRP 1) line 2: activated by b2 - Connect air supply of each cylinders valve, and supply + and ports of each cylinder - Connect the logic lines according to sequence: START A+ B+ B- A- C+ C-

Cascade method: forming groups


A + a1 a2 B + b1 b2 C + c1 c2

VA

VB

VC

Start 1

Cascade circuit for: START, A+, B+, B-, A-, C+, C-

1 2

Pure Pneumatic Controls

- For more complex logic, difficult to debug - Less versatile than electronic control (e.g. no counters, poor timer control)

- pneumatics timer control: delay valves.

Programmable Logic Controllers

History: avoiding complex/large relay boards


- Why are relay boards required?

PLC Basics: computer + relays

data communication wire

p ut

ut

s ut i np 1 ut i np

in

t3 pu

inp

t4

u inp

i np t5

6 ut

C A/ 0V 22

u inp

t0

Box with Computer (controller) Power supply wire

PLC: example 1

Pressure_Switch is ON Warning_Light ON

PLC: example 1

STEP 1:
Write this logic into a PROGRAM STEP 2: Load program into PLC STEP 3: Connect the sensor output to External Input terminal. STEP 4: Connect the PLC External Output Terminal to Warning Light STEP 5: EXECUTE the logic program on the PLC.

PLC: example 1

Programming language: LADDER LOGIC

PLC: example 1

Programming language: LADDER LOGIC

IF

THEN

PLC: example 2

Outer mat ON warning light ON Inner mat ON warning light ON AND Robot OFF

Stepping away from inner mat Manually switch robot ON

PLC: example 2
Two actuators: Warning light, Robot master switch
LOGIC for Warning light External Input 1: outer mat

External Input 2: inner mat

External output: light

PLC: example 2

LOGIC for Warning Light

LOGIC for Robot

PROBLEM ?

PLC: example 2
LOGIC for Robot Robot must STAY OFF until manual reset to ON Solution: LATCH External Input 2: inner mat latch Internal (logical) relay

External output: robot

PLC: example 2
LOGIC for Robot Robot must STAY OFF until manual reset to ON

Ladder Logic Programs

Switch (Relay) naming conventions

Lecture notes (Rockwell Automation PLC): External inputs: I:0/1, I:0/2, , I:1/1, I:1/2, I:n/m External outputs: O:0/1, O:0/2, , O:1/1, O:1/2, O:n/m Internal Relays: B0, B1, etc.
Lab (SMC PLC): External inputs: X0, X1, External outputs: Y0, Y1, , Internal Relays: R0, R1, etc.

PLC Example: XOR Logic

A xor B: (A is ON AND B is OFF) OR (A is OFF AND B is ON)

Ladder Logic: Timers


Solenoid actuated door-lock

Solenoid ON Door unlocked

Solenoid actuated when: (i) ON signal from number-pad outside door (ii) ON signal from door-open switch inside door Solenoid ON for 5 sec, then OFF

While O:0/1 remains ON,


Timer COUNTS DOWN from PRESET COUNT DOWN = 0 ( T4:1) set to ON

Ladder Logic: Timers


Solenoid actuated door-lock Solenoid ON Door unlocked

Solenoid actuated when: (i) ON signal from number-pad outside door (ii) ON signal from door-open switch inside door Solenoid ON for 5 sec, then OFF

Ladder Logic: Timers -- reset


Solenoid actuated when: (i) ON signal from number pad outside door (ii) ON signal from door-open switch inside door

Solenoid ON for 5 sec, then OFF

During ON, if button is pressed, Timer resets to PRESET


During ON, light indicator is ON

LEGEND: I:0/1 door-open I:O/2 card-reader


O:0/1 solenoid O:0/2 light indicator

Ladder Logic: counters


Count the number of occurrences of an event

Examples: Pallet loading in factory After 10 parts arrive on conveyor, worker comes to load pallet

Pneumatic press hammer Hit the part 20 times, then wait for part to be unloaded Rice cooker alarm Beep 5 times when rice is cooked

EVENT: switch goes from OFF ON

Ladder Logic: counters


Pallet loading in factory After 4 parts arrive on conveyor:

STOP conveyor belt turn ON the indicator light

Ladder Logic: car wash

Car arrives limit switch ON


Limit switch ON Washer ON Washer ON: (i) Soapy water SPRAY ON (30 secs) (ii) Rinse: clean water SPRAY ON (30 secs) (iii) Automatic scrubber brushes car (15 secs) (iv) After washing 50 cars, the scrubber brush Auto-change

I:0/1

I:0/2

B1

B1 T4: 0 EN Base: Preset: Accum : B1 T4: 1 EN Base: Preset: Accum : 0.01 6000 0 T4: 2 EN Base: Preset: Accum : B1 T4:0 T4:1 0.01 7500 0 T4:2 DN T4:2 DN T4:2 DN C5: 0 EN Preset: Accum : C5: 0 DN I:0/3 50 0 O:0/3 O:0/0 0.01 3000 0

I:0/1 : System On I:0/2 : Em ergency Stop I:0/3 : Lim it Switch O:0/0 O:0/1 O:0/2 O:0/3 : : : : Soa p Water On Rinse On Scrubber On Ac tivate Scrubber Change

B1

Notice how B1 and the time r outputs are used to c ontrol the logic according to the required timing.

B1

DN DN T4:0 T4:1 DN DN T4:0 T4:1 DN DN

O:0/1

B1

O:0/2

O:0/2 CTU

Car arrives limit switch ON Limit switch ON Washer ON Washer ON: (i) Soapy water SPRAY ON (30 secs) (ii) Rinse: clean water SPRAY ON (30 secs) (iii) Automatic scrubber brushes car (15 secs) (iv) After washing 50 cars, the scrubber brush Auto-change

T4:0 RES

I:0/3

T4:1 RES

I:0/3

T4:2 RES C5:0 RES

O:0/3

Programming a PLC

(1) Hand held console (direct feed of program into PLC)

(2) Computer-interface: (i) Complete the program on a computer (ii) Test the program on PC (iii) Upload the program to the PLC processor memory (persistent) (iv) Connect external Inputs and Outputs (v) Run the program on PLC

Operation cycle of PLC


Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08

00 Program Memory

30

30 31 32 33

Processor 34 35 Accumulator 36 37 37 output

09 10 11 input 11 input register output register