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Turbine Engines

By Jun Shu, Malvika Gulati and


Mike Graber
Turbine Engines
■ Introduction and history
■ How it works
■ Current and Future Uses
The history of Gas-turbine
engine

■How did it
start?
The history of Gas-turbine
engine
■ 150BC
– A toy was invented by Egyptian
named Hero.
The history of Gas-turbine
engine
■ In 1232 the Chinese used rockets
to frighten enemy soldiers.

■ Around 1500 A.D. Leonardo da


Vinci drew a sketch of a device
that rotated due to the effect of
hot gasses.
The history of Gas-turbine
engine

■ In 1629 another Italian name


Giovanni Branca actually
developed a device which used to
operate machinery.
The history of Gas-turbine
engine
The history of Gas-turbine
engine
■ The first patent for turbine engine.

■ In 1872 a man by the name of


Stolze designed the first true gas
turbine.

■ Charles Curtis the inventor of the


Curties steam engine
The history of Gas-turbine
engine
■ The General Electric company
started their gas turbine division in
1903.

– An engineer named Stanford Moss


lead most of the projects.

– Sir Frank Whittle of Great Britain


patented a design for a jet aircraft
engine in1930.
The history of Gas-turbine
engine
■ Hans von Ohain and Max Hahn,
developed and patented their own
engine design in 1936.

■ In 1941 Frank Whittle began fight


tests of a turbojet engine of his
own design in England.
EFFICIENCY OF THE INTERNAL-
COMBUSTION ENGINE
EFFICIENCY OF THE INTERNAL-
COMBUSTION ENGINE

■ Efficiency is the highest for a small range of values of


torque and rotational speed--those in the darker green
"sweet spot." At this level of efficiency, if the engine
were propelling a vehicle, it might burn eight liters of
gasoline per 100 kilometers. A series-type hybrid can be
designed so that its engine operates only in this
highest-efficiency mode; a parallel hybrid can be
designed so that its engine stays within the efficiency
represented by the dark and light green regions.
The Internal Workings of a
Turbine Engine
■ Link to a 3-D model representing the
internal working of a gas turbine engine

■ http://www.pwc.ca/en_markets/demonst
ration.html
Advantages
– Gas turbine engines weigh less, last longer, and
break down less often.
– They can attain thermal efficiencies in the mid-40s;
piston engine efficiencies are in the high-20s and
unlikely to go much higher.
– They excels from an emissions standpoint: gas
turbines with no exhaust treatment whatsoever have
lower emissions than spark ignition and compression
ignition engines with the best treatment available.
– Lastly unlike the spark ignition engine, which has
stringent requirements for fuel, the gas turbine can
burn a variety of fuels, including not only gasoline
but also diesel, home-heating oil, and almost any
other liquid or gaseous fuel.
Becoming a Contender
■ The compressor and turbine would actually
consist of multiple stages. The pressure ratio
would be low.
■ Compressor blades could be made from
injection-molded, fiber-reinforced composite,
while the compressor, turbine rotor,
combustor, and turbine housings would be
made of ceramic.
■ A ceramic regenerator would recover heat
from the compressed gas, reducing the
amount of fuel that must be burned. Such an
engine would be outstandingly responsive,
capable of the quick acceleration that drivers
Turbine Problems
■ Huge investments have been made in the spark-ignition
engine.
■ It is manufactured at astonishingly low cost and, in
general, performs superbly. Also the real cost of
gasoline, adjusted for inflation, is at or close to an all-
time low.
■ Thus even an 80-mile-per-gallon gas turbine car would
offer only a moderate economic advantage over
conventional vehicles, many of which now deliver 30 to
40 mpg.
■ In the near future, gas turbine engines make sense for
some niche markets, such as large trucks and buses.
Such large vehicles now must use diesel engines;
compared with diesels, gas turbines offer greatly
reduced emissions, lower noise, lighter weight, and
Major Uses
■ Hybrid automobiles
■ Military
■ Power plants
■ Other uses
Key Manufactures in the
US
■ Allison Advanced Development Co
■ General Electric
■ Pratt & Whitney
■ Allied Signal
■ Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical
■ Williams International
IHPTET

■ Integrated High Performance


Turbine Engine Technology
program
■ Formed in 1988
■ Goal: Double the propulsion
capability of turbine engines by the
turn of the century
■ Other big competitors from outside
US include Volvo and Rolls Royce
Key Military Uses

■ Turbofans and turbojets


– fighters, bombers, and large transport
■ Turbo shafts and turboprops
– helicopters, small transports, and
some trainers
■ Expendables
– missiles and unmanned aircraft such
as drones
M1A2 Tank
Power Plants
■ Micro Turbine Generators
– small power generator that can be
located close the area the power is
used
– Advantages: greater reliability and
lower costs by using fewer moving
parts and lower manufacturing costs
– Possible future use: scattered
throughout the utility’s traditional
distribution network working in
Power Plants
■ GE: MS7001FB
■ Runs off of mainly natural gas
■ Produces 280 MWe
■ Future sizes are up to 5000MWe
■ Higher efficiency and increased output
by raising compressor pressure ratio
and upping the firing temp.
7191F 7221FA 7231FA 7241FA 7251FB 7H
Year introduced 1991 1993 1997 1999 2001 2003

Firing temperature 1260 1287 1315 1327 1402 1430


(degree C)
Compressor pressure 13.5 15 15 15.5 18.5 23
ratio
Exhaust gas temp. 583 589 594 602 623 588
(degree C)
Heat rate (LHV) 9880 9500 9380 9360 9173 9115
(Btu/kWh)
Net output (MWe) 222 253 259 263 280.3 400
Efficiency(% Net) 51 52.7 53.5 55 57.3 60
NOx N/A 9 9 9 25 9
(ppmvd at 15% 02)
Other Uses
■ The vast majority of all commercial
jets
■ NASA
■ Offshore power generation(Volvo
VT2600) produces 2.5 MW of
energy, could be used on offshore
oilrigs
■ Ferries
■ High performance racing boats