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REVIEW OF BASIC STEPS

IN DERIVATION OF FLOW EQUATIONS


SIG4042 Reservoir Simulation
FAQ References Summary Info
Conservation of
Momentum
Black Oil Model
Conservation of
Mass
Constitutive
Equations
Questions
Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
Conditions
Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
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Handouts
(pdf file)
Contents
Constitutive Equations
Conservation of Momentum
Flow Equation
Black Oil Model
Conservation of Mass
Boundary and Initial Conditions
Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial Conditions
of Multiphase Systems
Questions
Introduction
FAQ References Summary Info
Conservation of
Momentum
Black Oil Model
Conservation of
Mass
Constitutive
Equations
Questions
Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
Conditions
Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Introduction
Introduction

Flow equations for flow in porous materials are based on a set of mass,
momentum and energy conservation equations, and constitutive
equations for fluids and the porous material.
For simplicity, we will in the following assume isothermal conditions, so that
we not have to involve an energy conservation equation. However, in
cases of changing reservoir temperature, such as in the case of cold
water injection into a warmer reservoir, this may be of importance.
Equations are described for linear, one-dimensional systems, but can easily be
extended to two and three dimensions, and to other coordinate systems.
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Flow Equation
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Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Conservation of Mass
Conservation of mass

Again we will consider the following one dimensional slab of porous material:
fluid
x
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Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
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Nomenclature
Introduction
Conservation of Mass
Mass conservation may be formulated across a control element of the slab,
with one fluid of density , flowing through it at a velocity u:
Ax
u

The mass balance for the control element is then written as:
)
`

=
)
`

)
`

element the inside


mass of change of Rate
Dx + at x element
the of out Mass
at x element
the into Mass
Continue
uA { }
x
uA { }
x+Ax
=
c
ct
|AAx { }
or
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Black Oil Model
Conservation of
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Flow Equation
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Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Conservation of Mass
uA { }
x
uA { }
x+Ax
=
c
ct
|AAx { }
Dividing equation above by Ax, and taking the limit as Ax goes to zero,
we get the conservation of mass, or continuity equation:
( ) ( ) |
t
A u A
x c
c
=
c
c

( ) ( ) |
t
u
x c
c
=
c
c

For constant cross sectional area, the continuity equation simplifies to:
Continue
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Conservation of
Momentum
Black Oil Model
Conservation of
Mass
Constitutive
Equations
Questions
Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
Conditions
Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Conservation of Momentum
Conservation of momentum

Conservation of momentum is governed by the Navier-Stokes equation, but is
normally simplified for low velocity flow in porous materials to be described by
the semi-empirical Darcy's equation, which for one dimensional, horizontal flow is:
x
P k
u
c
c
=

Continue
Alternative equations are the Forchheimer equation, for high velocity flow:
n
u
k
u
x
P
|

+ =
c
c

where n is proposed by Muscat to be 2.



The Brinkman equation, which applies to both porous and non-porous flow:
2
2
x
u
k
u
x
P
c
c
=
c
c

Brinkman's equation reverts to Darcy's equation for flow in porous media, since the last
term then normally is negligible, and to Stoke's equation for channel flow because
the Darcy part of the equation then may be neglected.
In the following, we assume that Darcy's
equation is valid for flow in porous media.
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Black Oil Model
Conservation of
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Constitutive
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Questions
Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
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Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Constitutive Equations
Constitutive equation for porous materials

To include pressure dependency in the porosity, we use the definition of
rock compressibility:
T
r
P
c
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
1
Keeping the temperature constant, the expression may be written:
r
c
dP
d
|
|
=
Normally, we may assume that the bulk volume of the porous material is
constant, i.e. the bulk compressibility is zero. This is not always true,
as witnessed by the subsidence in the Ekofisk area.
Continue
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Conservation of
Momentum
Black Oil Model
Conservation of
Mass
Constitutive
Equations
Questions
Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
Conditions
Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Constitutive Equations
Constitutive equations for fluids

Recall the familiar fluid compressibility definition, which applies to any fluid
at constant temperature:
T
f
P
V
V
c
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
Equally familiar is the gas equation, which for an ideal gas is:
PV = nRT
For a real gas includes the deviation factor, Z:
PV = nZRT
The gas density may be expressed as:

g
=
gS
P
Z
Z
S
P
S
where the subscript S denotes surface (standard) conditions.
Continue
These equations are frequently used in reservoir engineering applications.
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Momentum
Black Oil Model
Conservation of
Mass
Constitutive
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Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
Conditions
Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Description of Black Oil model

For reservoir simulation purposes, we normally use either so-called Black Oil fluid
description, or compositional fluid description. For now, we will consider the
Black Oil model, and get back to compositional model later on.
Black Oil Model
conditions standard at volume
conditions reservoir at volume
= B
conditions standard at oil of volume
conditions standard at oil from evolved gas of volume
=
so
R
Continue
The density of oil at reservoir conditions is then, in terms of these
parameters and the densities of oil and gas, defined as:

o
=

oS
+
gs
R
so
B
o
Continue
The standard Black Oil model includes Formation Volume Factor, B, for each fluid,
and Solution Gas-Oil Ratio, R
so
, for the gas dissolved in oil, in addition to
viscosity and density for each fluid. A modified model may also include oil
dispersed in gas, r
s
, and gas dissolved in water, R
sw
. The definitions of
formation volume factors and solution gas-oil ratio are:
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Black Oil Model
Conservation of
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Questions
Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
Conditions
Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Black Oil Model
Typical pressure dependencies of the standard Black Oil parameters are
(click on buttons):
P
B
w

P
B
g

B
w
vs. P B
g
vs. P
P
B
o

B
o
vs. P
P

w
vs. P
P

g
vs. P
P

o
vs. P
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Conservation of
Momentum
Black Oil Model
Conservation of
Mass
Constitutive
Equations
Questions
Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
Conditions
Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Black Oil Model
Typical pressure dependency of the Solution Gas-Oil Ratio in Black Oil model is
(click on button):
P
R
so

R
so
vs. P
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Momentum
Black Oil Model
Conservation of
Mass
Constitutive
Equations
Questions
Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
Conditions
Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Flow Equation
Flow equation

For single phase flow, in a one-dimensional, horizontal system, assuming
Darcy's equation to be applicable and that the cross sectional area is
constant, the flow equation becomes:
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
B t x
P
B
k
x
|

Continue
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Conservation of
Momentum
Black Oil Model
Conservation of
Mass
Constitutive
Equations
Questions
Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
Conditions
Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Boundary and Initial Conditions
Dirichlet conditions

When pressure conditions are specified, we normally would specify the
pressures at the end faces of the system in question. Applied to the simple
linear system described above, we may have the following two pressure
BC's at the ends:
( )
( )
R
L
P t L x P
P t x P
= > =
= > =
0 ,
0 , 0
For reservoir flow, a pressure condition will normally be specified as a bottom-
hole pressure of a production or injection well, at some position of the
reservoir. Strictly speaking, this is not a boundary condition, but the
treatment of this type of condition is similar to the treatment of a
boundary pressure condition.
More
Boundary conditions

We have two types of BC's: pressure conditions (Dirichlet conditions) and rate
conditions (Neumann conditions). The most common boundary conditions in
reservoirs, including sources/sinks, are discussed in the following.
Continue
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Black Oil Model
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Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
Conditions
Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Boundary and Initial Conditions
Neumann condition

Alternatively, we would specify the flow rates at the end faces of the system in
question. Using Darcy's equation at the ends of the simple system above,
the conditions become:
For reservoir flow, a rate condition may be specified as a production or
injection rate of a well, at some position of the reservoir, or it is specified
as a zero-rate across a sealed boundary or fault, or between
non-communicating layers.
More
0 =
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
=
x
L
x
P kA
Q

L x
L
x
P kA
Q
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
=

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Conservation of
Momentum
Black Oil Model
Conservation of
Mass
Constitutive
Equations
Questions
Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
Conditions
Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Boundary and Initial Conditions
Initial condition (IC)

The initial condition specifies the initial state of the primary variables of the
system. For the simple case above, a constant initial pressure may be
specified as:
The initial pressure may be a function of postition. For non-horizontal systems,
hydrostatic pressure equilibrium is normally computed based on a
reference pressure and fluid densities:
Continue

P(x, t = 0) = P
0
P(z,t = 0) = P
ref
+ (z z
ref
)g
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Black Oil Model
Conservation of
Mass
Constitutive
Equations
Questions
Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
Conditions
Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Multiphase Flow
Multiphase flow

A continuity equation may be written for each fluid phase flowing:
The corresponding Darcy equations for each phase are:
Continue
( ) ( )
l l l l
S
t
u
x
|
c
c
=
c
c

x
P kk
u
l
l
rl
l
c
c
=

g w o l , , =
g w o l , , =
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Black Oil Model
Conservation of
Mass
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Equations
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Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
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Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Multiphase Flow
The continuity equation for gas has to be modified to include solution gas as
well as free gas, so that the oil equation only includes the part of the oil
remaining liquid at the surface:
Where
oL
represents the part of the oil remaining liquid at the surface
(in the stock tank), and
oG
the part that is gas at the surface.
Continue

o
=

oS
+
gS
R
so
B
o
=
oL
+
oG
( ) ( )
o oG g g o oG g g
S S
t
u u
x
| | +
c
c
= +
c
c

( ) ( )
o oL o oL
S
t
u
x
|
c
c
=
c
c

Thus, the oil and gas continuity equations become:


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Black Oil Model
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Constitutive
Equations
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Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
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Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Multiphase Flow
After substitution for Darcy's equations and Black Oil fluid properties, and
including well rate terms, the flow equations become:
The oil equation could be further modified to include dispersed oil in the gas,
if any, similarly to the inclusion of solution gas in the oil equation.
Continue
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
c
c
= ' '
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
o
o
so
g
g
o so g
o
o
ro
so
g
g g
rg
B
S
R
B
S
t
q R q
x
P
oB
kk
R
x
P
B
kk
x
|
|

Where:
w o cow
P P P =
o g cog
P P P =
S
l
l = o, w, g

= 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
= '
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
w
w
w
w
w w
rw
B
S
t
q
x
P
B
kk
x
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
= '
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
o
o
o
o
o o
ro
B
S
t
q
x
P
B
kk
x
|

FAQ References Summary Info


Conservation of
Momentum
Black Oil Model
Conservation of
Mass
Constitutive
Equations
Questions
Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
Conditions
Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Non-horizontal Flow
Non-horizontal flow

For one-dimensional, inclined flow:
the Darcy equation becomes:
Continue
x
o
D u
|
.
|

\
|

c
c
=
dx
dD
g
x
P k
u

or, in terms of dip angle, o, and hydrostatic gradient:


( )
|
.
|

\
|

c
c
= o

sin
x
P k
u
where =g is the hydrostatic gradient of the fluid.
FAQ References Summary Info
Conservation of
Momentum
Black Oil Model
Conservation of
Mass
Constitutive
Equations
Questions
Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
Conditions
Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Multidimensional Flow
Multidimensional flow

The continuity equation for one-phase, three-dimensional flow
in cartesian coordinates, is:
The corresponding Darcy equations are:
More
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) |
t
u
z
u
y
u
x
z y x
c
c
=
c
c

c
c

c
c

|
.
|

\
|
c
c

c
c
=
x
D
x
P k
u
x
x

|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c

c
c
=
y
D
y
P
k
u
y
y

|
.
|

\
|
c
c

c
c
=
z
D
z
P k
u
z
z

FAQ References Summary Info


Conservation of
Momentum
Black Oil Model
Conservation of
Mass
Constitutive
Equations
Questions
Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
Conditions
Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Coordinate Systems
Coordinate systems

Normally, we use either a rectangular coordinate system or a cylindrical
coordinate system in reservoir simulation (click the buttons):
x
Rectangular
coordinates
y
z
r
Cylindrical
coordinates
z
u
r
u

Spherical
coordinates
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Conservation of
Momentum
Black Oil Model
Conservation of
Mass
Constitutive
Equations
Questions
Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
Conditions
Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Boundary and Initial Conditions of Multiphase Systems
Boundary conditions of multiphase systems

The pressure and rate BC's discussed above apply to multiphase systems.
However, for a production well in a reservoir, we normally specify either
an oil production rate at the surface, or a total liquid rate at the surface.
Thus, the rate(s) not specified must be computed from Darcy's equation.
The production is subjected to maximum allowed GOR or WC, or both.
We will discuss these conditions later.
See a picture
OIL
OIL
GAS
WATER
Z
GOC
WOC
AQUIFER
BC:
1) P
bh
= constant
2) Q = constant
BC:
1) P
bh
= constant
2) Q
inj
= constant
BC:
k = 0 0 =
c
c
=
x
P kA
q

BC:
q = 0
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Conservation of
Momentum
Black Oil Model
Conservation of
Mass
Constitutive
Equations
Questions
Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
Conditions
Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Boundary and Initial Conditions of Multiphase Systems
Initial conditions of multiphase systems

In addition to specification of initial pressures, we also need to specify initial
saturations in a multiphase system. This requires knowledge of water-oil
contact (WOC) and gas-oil contact (GOC). Assuming that the reservoir is
in equilibrium, we may compute initial phase pressures based on contact
levels and densities. Then, equilibrium saturations may be interpolated
from the capillary pressure curves. Alternatively, the initial saturations are
based on measured logging data.
OIL
OIL
GAS
WATER
Z
GOC
WOC
See a picture
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Black Oil Model
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Flow Equation
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Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Questions
1) Write the mass balance equation (one-dimentional, one-phase).
Next
2) Write the most common relationship between velocity and pressure,
and write an alternative relationship used for high fluid velocities.
3) Write the expression for the relationship between porosity and
pressure.
4) List 3 commonly used expressions for relating fluid density to pressure.
5) Describe briefly Black Oil model.
6) Sketch typical dependencies of the standard Black Oil parameters.
7) Write Darcy equation for one-dimentional, inclined flow.
8) Write continuity equation for one-phase, three-dimensional flow in
cartesian coordinates.
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Conservation of
Momentum
Black Oil Model
Conservation of
Mass
Constitutive
Equations
Questions
Flow Equation
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Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
A - area, m
2

B - formation volume factor
c - compressibility, 1/Pa
k - permeability, m
2

k
r
- relative permeability, m
2

L - lenght, m
N - number of grid blocks
n - number of moles
O(...) - discretization error
P - pressure, Pa
P
c
- capillary pressure, Pa
Q, q - flow rate, Sm
3
/d
R - gas constant
R
so
- solution gas-oil ratio
r - radius, m
S - saturation
T - temperature, K
t - time, s
u - Darcy velocity, m/s
V - volume, m
3

x - distance, m
x, y, z - spatial coordinate
Z - deviation factor
o - angle
Ax - lenght of grid block, m
At - time step, s
| - porosity
- viscosity, Pas
- density, kg/m
3


Subscripts:
0 - initiall value
e - end of reservoir
f - fluid
g - gas
i - block number
L - left side
l - liquid
o - oil
R - right side
S - surface (standard) conditions
r - rock
w - water
w - well
Nomenclature
Back to presentation
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Conservation of
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Black Oil Model
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Mass
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Equations
Questions
Flow Equation
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Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
General information
About the author
Title:
Review of Basic Steps in Derivation of Flow Equations
Teacher(s):
Jon Kleppe
Assistant(s):
Szczepan Polak
Abstract:
Review of basic steps in derivation of flow equations for flow in
porous materials based on set of mass, momentum and energy
conservation equations, and constitutive equations for fluid and
porous material in isothermical conditions.
Keywords:
conservation equations, constitutive equations, black oil model,
multiphase flow, non-horizontal flow, multidimensional flow,
coordinate systems
Topic discipline:
Reservoir Engineering -> Reservoir Simulation
Level:
4
Prerequisites:
Good knowledge of reservoir engineering
Learning goals:
Learn basic principles of Reservoir Simulation
Size in megabytes:
0.9
Software requirements:
-
Estimated time to complete:
60 minutes
Copyright information:
The author has copyright to the module
FAQ References Summary Info
Conservation of
Momentum
Black Oil Model
Conservation of
Mass
Constitutive
Equations
Questions
Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
Conditions
Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
FAQ
FAQ References Summary Info
Conservation of
Momentum
Black Oil Model
Conservation of
Mass
Constitutive
Equations
Questions
Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
Conditions
Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
References
Aziz, K. and Settari, A.: Petroleum Reservoir Simulation, Applied Science
Publishers LTD, London (1979)

Mattax, C.C. and Kyte, R.L.: Reservoir Simulation, Monograph Series, SPE,
Richardson, TX (1990)

Skjveland, S.M. and Kleppe J.: Recent Advances in Improved Oil Recovery
Methods for North Sea Sandstone Reservoirs, SPOR Monograph, Norvegian
Petroleum Directoriate, Stavanger 1992
FAQ References Summary Info
Conservation of
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Black Oil Model
Conservation of
Mass
Constitutive
Equations
Questions
Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
Conditions
Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
Summary
FAQ References Summary Info
Conservation of
Momentum
Black Oil Model
Conservation of
Mass
Constitutive
Equations
Questions
Flow Equation
Boundary and Initial
Conditions
Multiphase Flow
Non-horizontal Flow
Mutlidimensional Flow
Coordinate Systems
Boundary and Initial
Conditions of
Multiphase
Systems
Nomenclature
Introduction
About the Author
Name
Jon Kleppe
Position
Professor at Department of
Petroleum Engineering and
Applied Geophysics at NTNU
Address:
NTNU
S.P. Andersensvei 15A
7491 Trondheim

E-mail:
kleppe@ipt.ntnu.no

Phone:
+47 73 59 49 33

Web:
http://iptibm3.ipt.ntnu.no/~kleppe/