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Building Design and Construction

Technology
Chapter-6: Analysis of multi-storey
rigid frame
This chapter discusses the forces (bending
moment and shear force) are calculated in a
rigid frame subjected to horizontal (wind or
EQ) forces?
How the inter-storey and total drift of a
multi-storey frame is determined?
Learning objective of this chapter
What is expected from this chapter (Learning out-come?
At the end of this chapter, students would be able to
determine the shear forces and bending moment in the
members of a multi-storey frame using approximate
method of analysis.
Introduction
As discussed in the earlier chapter that a
rigid frame high-rise structure comprises
parallel or orthogonally arranged bents
consisting of columns and beams with
moment resistant joints.
Resistance to horizontal loading is
provided by the bending resistance of the
columns, beams and joints.
Rigid Frame Behavior
The horizontal stiffness of a rigid frame is
governed mainly by the bending
resistance of the beams, the columns,
and the connections, and, in a tall frame,
by the axial rigidity of the columns.
The accumulated horizontal shear above
any storey of a rigid frame is resisted by
shear in the columns of that storey as
shown on the next slide.
Rigid Frame Behavior
Figure-5.1: Forces and Deformations caused by external shear
Rigid Frame Behavior
The shear causes by storey-height columns to bend
in double curvature, with point of contra-flexure at
approximately mid span.
These deformations of the columns and beams
allow raking of the frame and horizontal deflection
in each storey.
The overall deflected shape of a rigid frame
structure due to raking has a shear configuration
with concavity upwind, a maximum inclination near
the base, and a minimum inclination at the top.
This mode of frame deflection is also called shear
mode, and such frames may be termed as shear
frames.
Rigid Frame Behavior
The overall moment of the external horizontal
shear is resisted in each storey level by the couple
resulting from the axial tensile and compressive
forces in the columns on opposite sides of the
structure as shown on the next slide.
Rigid Frame Behavior
Figure-5.2: Forces and Deformations caused by external moments
Rigid Frame Behavior
The extension and shortening of columns cause
overall bending and associated displacements of
the structure.
Because of the cumulative rotation up the height,
the storey drift due to overall bending increases
with height, while that due to raking tends to
decrease.
Consequently the contribution to storey drift from
overall bending may, in the uppermost storey,
exceed that from raking.
Rigid Frame Behavior
The contribution of overall bending to the total drift,
however, will usually not exceed 10% of that raking,
except in very tall, slender rigid frames.
Therefore the overall deflected shape of a high-rise
rigid frame usually has a shear configuration.
Rigid Frame Analysis
As highly redundant structures, rigid frames are
designed initially on the basis of approximate
analysis, after that a detailed analysis and checks
are made. The procedure may typically include
the following stages:
i. Estimation of gravity load forces in beams and
columns by approximate method.
ii. Preliminary estimate of member sizes based on
gravity load forces with arbitrary increase in sizes
to allow for horizontal loading.
iii. Approximate allocation of horizontal loading to
bents and preliminary analysis of member forces
in bents.
Rigid Frame Analysis
iv. Check on drift and adjustment of member sizes if
necessary.
v. Check on strength of members for worst
combination of gravity and horizontal loading, and
adjustment of member sizes if necessary.
vi. Computer analysis of total structure for more
accurate check on member strengths and drift,
with further adjustment of sizes where required.
This stage may include the second-order P-A
effects of gravity loading on the member forces
and drift
vii. Detailed design of members and connections.
Approximate Determination of Member
Forces Caused by Gravity Loading
Since a rigid frame is highly redundant;
consequently, an accurate analysis can be made
only after the member sizes are assigned.
Initially therefore member sizes are decided on
the basis of approximate forces estimated either
by conservative formulas or by simplified
method of analysis that are independent of
member properties.
Determination of Beam Forces Using Code
recommended Formulas
Code recommended formulas for determining
the beam forces can be used upon the following
conditions:
These are applicable of two or more spans,
when the longest span does not exceed the
shortest by more than 20%.
The uniformly distributed design live load does
not exceed three times the dead load.
The beam moment and shear may be estimated
using formulas given in on next slide:
Determination of Beam Forces Using Code
recommended Formulas
Determination of Beam Forces Using Code
recommended Formulas
Two-Cycle Moment Distribution
This is a concise form of moment distribution
for estimating girder moments in a continuous
multi-bay span. It is more accurate than the
formulas in Table-5.1 especially for cases of
unequal spans and unequal loading in different
spans.
The following is assumed for the analysis:
Counter-clockwise restraining moment on the
right end of a girder is positive and a clockwise
moment is negative.
Two-Cycle Moment Distribution
the ends of columns at floors above and below
the considered girder are fixed.
In the absence of known member sizes,
distribution factors at each joint are taken equal
to 1/n, where n is the number of members into
the joint in the plane of the frame.
Two-Cycle Moment Distribution
The above Figure showing a 4-span beam of a rigid
frame, the above beam may be analyzed for gravity
loading as given using moment distribution method.
Using the formulas in Figure-5.4, fixed end moments
for dead load, and dead + live load is calculated and
tabulated in Table on the next slide.
Two-Cycle Moment Distribution
Two-Cycle Moment Distribution
Approximate analysis of Member Forces
Caused By Horizontal Loading
Allocation of Loading Between Bents
A first step in the approximate analysis of a
rigid frame is to estimate the allocation of the
external horizontal force to each bent. The
loading will come from:
Wind analysis, and/or
Earthquake analysis
Approximate analysis of Member Forces
Caused By Horizontal Loading


Member Force analysis by Portal Method
The portal method allows an approximate
analysis for rigid frames without having to
specify member sizes and therefore, it is very
useful for a preliminary analysis.
This method is most appropriate to rigid frames
that deflect predominantly by raking.
It is, therefore, suitable for structure of
moderate slenderness and height, and is
commonly recommended as useful for
structures up to 25 storey height, and a height
to width ratio not greater than 4:1.
Approximate analysis of Member Forces
Caused By Horizontal Loading


It is analogous between a set of single single-
bay portal frames and a single storey of multi-
bay rigid frames as shown in Figure-a and b on
the next slide.


Figure-5.5 (a) Separate Portal Analogy (b) Separate Portals Superposed
Approximate analysis of Member Forces
Caused By Horizontal Loading


When each of the separate portals carries a
share of the horizontal shear, tension occurs in
the windward columns and compression in the
leeward columns.
If these are superposed to simulate the multi-
bay frame, the axial forces of the interior
columns are eliminated.

Approximate analysis of Member Forces
Caused By Horizontal Loading


The analysis is based on the following
assumptions:
I. Horizontal loading on the frame causes
double curvature bending of all the columns
and beams, with point of contraflexure at
the mid height of columns and mid span of
the beams, as shown in Figure-5.1.
II. The horizontal shear at mid storey levels is
shared between the columns in proportion
in proportion to the width of aisle each
column supports.

EXAMPLE


It is required to determine the member forces in
the 20-storey frame as shown in Figure-on the
next slide.
The storey height is typically 3.5 m, to give a
total height of 70.0 m, the bents are spaced
7.0 m, the wind loading is 1.5 kN/m
2
.














Drift Analysis of Rigid Frame
Structure
Chapter 6b
Approximate analysis for Drift
When the initial sizes of the frame members have
been selected, an approximate check on the
horizontal drift of the structure can be made. The
drift in a rigid frame, as shown in Figure-4.1 is
mainly caused by raking. The raking comprises of
two components:
1. The first is due to rotation of the joints, as
allowed by the double bending of the girders, as
shown in Figure-4.5.1a and b.
2. The second is caused by double bending of
columns as shown in Figure-c on next slide.
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Approximate analysis for Drift
The contribution of overall bending to the total
drift at the top of the structure is usually less
than 10% of that due to raking.

The following method of calculation for drift
allows the separate determination of the
components attributable to beam bending,
column bending, and overall cantilever action.

Approximate analysis for Drift
5.5.1 Storey Drift due to Beam Bending
Consider a storey-height segment of a frame at
floor level, I, consisting of a line of girders and
half-storey height columns above and below each
joint as shown in Figure-a on earlier slide.
To isolate the effect of girder bending, assume the
columns are flexurally rigid.
Approximate analysis for Drift
Storey Drift due to Beam Bending
Approximate analysis for Drift
Storey Drift due to Beam Bending
Referring to Figure-b, the drift in storey, i, due to joint
rotation is
Approximate analysis for Drift
Storey Drift due to Beam Bending
Approximate analysis for Drift
Storey Drift due to Column Bending
Referring to Figure-c, in which the drift due to
column bending is isolated by assuming the girders
are rigid, the drift of the structure in storey, i, is:
Approximate analysis for Drift
Storey Drift due to overall Bending and Total Drift
Approximate analysis for Drift
Storey Drift due to overall Bending and Total Drift
Approximate analysis for Drift
Storey Drift due to overall Bending and Total Drift
Figure-5.5.2 (a) Frame Structure (b) distribution of inertia, I, (c) distribution of external
moment, M (d) M/EI diagram.
Approximate analysis for Drift
Storey Drift due to overall Bending and Total Drift
Approximate analysis for Drift
Storey Drift due to overall Bending and Total Drift
Effective Shear Rigidity (GA)
Effective Shear Rigidity (GA)
Effective Shear Rigidity (GA)
Effective Shear Rigidity (GA)
Effective Shear Rigidity (GA)
EXAMPLE OF DRIFT CALCULATION AND SHEAR RIGIDITY
Column Size: 400 mm x 400 mm(from Ground floor to Roof)
Beam Size: 600 mm (deep) x 200 mm (wide) (Typical)
Modulus of Elasticity, E =
2.0x10
7
kN/m
2
Ic = 0.0021 m
4
Ig = 0.0036 m
4
DRIFT CALCULATION DUE TO BEAM BENDING
Lev Qi (kN) hi (m) L1 L2 L3 Ig/L1 Ig/L2 Ig/L3 (Ig/L)
i
o
ig
(mm)
5 100 4.0 6 8 6 6.0E-04 4.5E-04 6.0E-04 1.7E-03 4.0
4 300 4.0 6 8 6 6.0E-04 4.5E-04 6.0E-04 1.7E-03 12.1
3 480 4.0 6 8 6 6.0E-04 4.5E-04 6.0E-04 1.7E-03 19.4
2 650 4.0 6 8 6 6.0E-04 4.5E-04 6.0E-04 1.7E-03 26.3
1 800 4.0 6 8 6 6.0E-04 4.5E-04 6.0E-04 1.7E-03 32.3
DRIFT CALCULATION DUE TO COLUMN BENDING
Lev Qi (kN) hi (m) Ic/h Ic/h Ic/h Ic/h (Ic/h)
i
o
ic
(mm)
5 100 4.0 5.3E-04 5.3E-04 5.3E-04 5.3E-04 2.1E-03 3.1
4 300 4.0 5.3E-04 5.3E-04 5.3E-04 5.3E-04 2.1E-03 9.4
3 480 4.0 5.3E-04 5.3E-04 5.3E-04 5.3E-04 2.1E-03 15.0
2 650 4.0 5.3E-04 5.3E-04 5.3E-04 5.3E-04 2.1E-03 20.3
1 800 4.0 5.3E-04 5.3E-04 5.3E-04 5.3E-04 2.1E-03 25.0

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4
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4
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4
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m
4
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m
6.0 m 8.0 m 6.0 m
100 kN
200 kN
180 kN
170 kN
150 kN
100 kN
300 kN
480 kN
650 kN
800 kN
STOREY SHEAR, Q
i
I - Diagram Moment - Diagram
M/EI - Diagram
M
5
M
1
M
2
M
3
M
4
M
0
DRIFT CALCULATION DUE TO OVERALL BENDING
A C1 C2 C3 C4
Ic = Ac
2
0.16 10 4 4 10 37
0.16 10 4 4 10 37
0.16 10 4 4 10 37
0.16 10 4 4 10 37
0.16 10 4 4 10 37
Lev Qi (kN) ho
i
(m) Mi Ic Mi/Eic u
i
o
if
(mm)
5 100 4.0 0 37 0 1.26E-04 0.50
4 300 4.0 400 37 5.4E-07 1.05E-04 0.42
3 480 4.0 1600 37 2.2E-06 8.85E-05 0.35
2 650 4.0 3520 37 4.8E-06 6.94E-05 0.28
1 800 4.0 6120 37 8.3E-06 4.17E-05 0.17
0 0.0 9320 1.3E-05
OVERALL DRIFT CALCULATION AT EVERY STOREY
o
ig
(mm) o
ic
(mm) o
if
(mm) o
i
(mm)
Ai (mm)
4.04 3.13 0.50 7.67 168.68
12.12 9.38 0.42 21.92 161.01
19.39 15.00 0.35 34.75 139.09
26.26 20.31 0.28 46.85 104.34
32.32 25.00 0.17 57.49 57.49
REPRESENTATION OF STOREY DRIFT AND
OVERALL DRIFT

A B C D
6.0 m 7.0 m 8.0 m
6
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m

8
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m

1

2

3

Y

X

Q = 400 kN
Third EXAMPLE OF DRIFT CALCULATION AND SHEAR RIGIDITY
Columns b h
5 200 300
Beam Size: 600 mm (deep) x 200 mm (wide) 4 200 350
Modulus of Elasticity, E = 2.0x10
7
kN/m
2
3 250 400
Ic = 0.0021 m
4
2 275 425
Ig = 0.0036 m
4
1 300 400
DRIFT CALCULATION DUE TO BEAM BENDING
Lev Qi (kN)hi (m) L1 L2 L3 Ig/L1 Ig/L2 Ig/L3 (Ig/L)
i
o
ig
(mm)
5 100 4.0 6 8 6 6.0E-04 4.5E-04 6.0E-04 1.7E-03 4.0
4 300 4.0 6 8 6 6.0E-04 4.5E-04 6.0E-04 1.7E-03 12.1
3 480 4.0 6 8 6 6.0E-04 4.5E-04 6.0E-04 1.7E-03 19.4
2 650 4.0 6 8 6 6.0E-04 4.5E-04 6.0E-04 1.7E-03 26.3
1 800 4.0 6 8 6 6.0E-04 4.5E-04 6.0E-04 1.7E-03 32.3
DRIFT CALCULATION DUE TO COLUMN BENDING
Lev Qi (kN) hi (m) Ic/h Ic/h Ic/h Ic/h (Ic/h)
i
o
ic
(mm)
5 100 5.0 200 300 0.0005 9.0E-05 9.0E-05 9.0E-05 9.0E-05 3.6E-04 28.9
4 300 3.0 200 350 0.0007 2.4E-04 2.4E-04 2.4E-04 2.4E-04 9.5E-04 11.8
3 480 3.0 250 400 0.0013 4.4E-04 4.4E-04 4.4E-04 4.4E-04 1.8E-03 10.1
2 650 3.0 275 425 0.0018 5.9E-04 5.9E-04 5.9E-04 5.9E-04 2.3E-03 10.4
1 800 6.0 300 400 0.0016 2.7E-04 2.7E-04 2.7E-04 2.7E-04 1.1E-03 112.5

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5
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3
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3
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3
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m
6.0 m
8.0m
6.0 m
100 kN
200 kN
180 kN
170 kN
150 kN
100 kN
300 kN
480 kN
650 kN
800 kN
Storey Shear, Q
i
DRIFT CALCULATION DUE TO OVERALL BENDING
A C1 C2 C3 C4
Ic = Ac
2
200 300 0.06 10 4 4 10 14
200 350 0.07 10 4 4 10 16
250 400 0.1 10 4 4 10 23
275 425 0.1169 10 4 4 10 27
300 400 0.12 10 4 4 10 28
Lev Qi (kN) ho
i
(m) Mi Ic Mi/Eic u
i
o
if
(mm)
5 100 5.0 0 14 0 1.67E-04 0.84
4 300 3.0 400 16 1.44E-06 1.36E-04 0.41
3 480 3.0 1600 23 4.93E-06 1.30E-04 0.39
2 650 3.0 3520 27 7.59E-06 1.09E-04 0.33
1 800 6.0 6120 28 1.13E-05 5.60E-05 0.34
0 0.0 9320 1.67E-05
OVERALL DRIFT CALCULATION AT EVERY STOREY
o
ig
(mm) o
ic
(mm) o
if
(mm) o
i
(mm)
Ai (mm)
4.04 28.94 0.84 33.81 270.20
12.12 11.81 0.41 24.34 236.39
19.39 10.13 0.39 29.91 212.05
26.26 10.39 0.33 36.98 182.14
32.32 112.50 0.34 145.16 145.16