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Standards of Living

Social Studies 11 Mr. Liebert

World Poverty A Reality Check!


According to the United Nations Development Programme Current World population = 6.7 billion people People living in severe poverty = 1.3 billion ( 1 in every 6 people) People living without adequate food or no food at all = 850 million people Illiterate people = 850 million-- of which 540 million are women!

Standard of living is a measure of economic welfare Usually measured by assessing per capita income or per capita consumption of goods/services Gross Domestic Product or GDP is commonly used to measure the standard of living of a given country GDP is the value of all goods and services produced by a country in the period of one year GDP is a measure of a countrys annual production

What is a standard of living?

How are living standards quantified?


Standards of living are usually quantified by using the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or the Gross National Product (GNP) GDP measures a countrys production GNP measures the average individual income in a given country

Countries with a high standard of living-- The Haves


1.)
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Norway

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Luxembourg

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Australia Iceland Canada Ireland Netherlands Sweden France Switzerland Japan

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Finland United States Austria Spain Denmark Belgium Italy Liechtenstein New Zealand

Countries with low standard of living-- The Have Nots


1.)
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Niger

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Mozambique
Ethiopia Guinea Liberia Gambia Rwanda Senegal Eritrea Zambia Cte dIvoire

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Afghanistan Sierra Leone Central African Republic Mali Burkina Faso

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7.) Democratic Republic of the Congo


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Chad Burundi Guinea-Bissau

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Poverty is relative
What does this mean? Poverty occurs throughout the world and is relative to the living standards of a given country For example, according to 1985 statistics in Canada, of all poor families 87% had a colour TV 98% had a radio 52% had a car 64% had a washing machine What about people in Sudan? Do you think that the people of Sudan would possess these same items?

When we envision poverty, we often think of homeless people in large urban centres or starving children in developing countries Poverty occurs right outside our front doors! The poverty line rises with inflation and items that were once deemed luxury items soon are mass produced and become affordable

Poverty is Relative cont;

Measuring Poverty: Canada


$ How do you measure are quantify poverty? $ In Canada, you are considered poor if you are spending 56% or more of a persons or familys income on food, shelter, and clothing $ Based upon this criterion, some 5 million Canadians are considered poor-- these Canadians are living below the poverty line

What is the Poverty Line?


In Canada, there isn't a standard measure of poverty-- the most accepted one, however, is the lowincome cut-off (LICO) Statistics Canada measures the number of families who are below the low-income cut-off (LICO), which means those who spend 56% or more of their gross income on food, shelter and clothing compared to the average Canadian. This figure is often used as the unofficial poverty line

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First Nations Standard of LivingA Reality Check


First Nations living conditions or quality of life ranks 63rd, or amongst Third World conditions, according to an Indian and Northern Affairs Canada study that applied First Nations-specific statistics to the Human Development Index created by the United Nations. Canada dropped from first to eighth as the best country in the world to live primarily due to housing and health conditions in First Nations communities. The First Nations infant mortality rate is 1.5 times higher than the Canadian infant mortality rate

Why?

The Vulnerable: Women and Children


Most societies throughout the world are male dominated In some societies, women and children have no legal rights, or are considered property rather than persons:
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arranged marriages (dowry) child labour and exploitation (sex trade or child soldiers) Female circumcision Education wasted on girls! Women have little or no access to education

Women become enslaved for child bearing and domestic labour and often suffer from abuse and domestic violence

A Comparison of Global Female Literacy and Fertility Rates (2003)

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Global Female Literacy Rates

The Poverty Cycle


Baby born to malnourished mother Babys development slowed

Family in debt

Marry Young

Baby receives poor nutrition and medical care


Childs development slowed Poor performance in school

Reduced Success
Low Literacy

Cycle of Poverty

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Factors contributing to Poverty

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Causes of Global Poverty


Armed conflicts and wars disrupt attempts at providing countries in need with aid Natural disasters destroy communities and usually followed by the spread of disease in their aftermath. Eg: Indonesian Tidal wave in 2004 Natural disasters limit resources and disrupt the construction of adequate housing, infastructure, and mechanisms Lack of education leads to unemployment and support of family units Lack of employment leads to income inequalities and too few jobs for low income groups

Causes of Global Poverty continued


High birth rates put pressure on scarce resources and lead to starvation and disease Low levels of literacy mean that people cannot find jobs that will earn enough to support family High debt burden produces lower living standards with reduced wages and the undercutting of their resources in order to compete economically Infectious diseases ravage communities and bring death to significant portions of the population with limited access to decent medical support. Disease puts stress on already overburdened resources and services and eventually leads to reliance upon foreign aid

Malnutrition
According to the World Health Organization, malnutrition is essentially means bad nourishment. It concerns not enough, as well as, too much food, the wrong types of food, and the body's response to a wide range of infections that result in the in ability to absorption nutrients or use nutrients properly to maintain health. Malnutrition is both a medical and a social disorder, often rooted in poverty. Malnutrition in all its forms increases the risk of disease and early death.

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Disease
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Poverty paves the way for disease People in developing countries have limited or no access to medical services Lack of education, and sub standard living conditions assist in the spread of diseases (most of which are preventable given the proper resources) Poverty prevents poor countries from devoting sufficient resources to detect and contain deadly disease Disease flourishes in regions where poverty forced over-crowded living conditions with poor sanitation and no access to education or medicine Diseases such as: AIDS, Malaria,Tuberculosis,Bubonic Plague, Smallpox, Avian Flu, and even H1N1

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A.I.D.S.
AIDS stands for auto immune deficiency syndrome AIDS originated in Africa from chimpanzees Virus attacks the immune system and prevents the body from fighting off disease and infection No cure has been found for AIDS Global need to educate people to reduce and stop the spread of HIV/AIDS No unprotected sex and proper use of condoms No sharing needles for drug use

HIV/AIDS in Africa
Africa is the continent worst affected by AIDS Most new infections occur during unprotected heterosexual sex The main goal in HIV prevention is to persuade people to change their sexual behaviour This is always a difficult task, and in Africa it is made harder by poverty, lack of resources and weak infrastructure. Only 1 in 10 Africans has been tested for HIV and knows whether they are infected Misconceptions about transmission routes are widespread, and access to condoms is very low. Cultural barriers and taboos challenge educating the masses to adopt preventative measures

Poor or Polluted Drinking Water


Over 1.2 billion people have

little or no access to safe, clean drinking water 80% of diseases are caused by contaminated water Water usually becomes contaminated by human sewage, pollution, industrial waste, and overuse of agricultural pesticides and fertilizers

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Slums and Shanty townships


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In developing countries, people often move from rural countryside to urban centres in search of work and better opportunity. Cities are over-run with an excess of people who are uneducated and unskilled and have little chance of finding steady work to support themselves or their families Slums and shanty towns emerge as these people create their own housing out whatever they can find. These townships have no electricity, no running water, and no sewage drainage and disposal These areas are overpopulated and soon become breeding grounds for disease

Shanty Towns
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Education & Literacy


Education is basic fundamental and an important ingredient required for development of any society. Education of a person improves their social status, their mental status, their knowledge, and their abilities to develop the necessary skills to face practical situations in life. Poverty in a major segment of population, prevents the parents from sending their children to schools Gender inequality means females are not given the same preference as the males In some countries traditional caste/class practices also play a major role in preventing the education If people from developing countries are able to overcome these barriers the education level will definitely rise in these developing countries.

Africa is a Mess

How did it get that way?

International Aid
International aid is a means of attempting to address some of the human rights and poverty issues that occur in under-developed and developing countries Non-government organizations (NGOs) are groups that are not directly connected to government and are nonprofit agencies that provide aid and services to underdeveloped countries Non-government organizations also lobby governments for human rights violations Some NGOs receive financial support from government as well as rely upon public donations to fund their activities Some examples of NGOs are organizations such as Oxfam, Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), Save the Children, and World Vision

International or Foreign Aid


International aid comes in several forms Multilateral aid comes from a combined effort of several

countries to provide relief and aid to a given country An example of this type of aid would be the relief efforts after the Indonesian Tsunami in 2004 Bilateral aid is development assistance that is provided by a donor country in response to a developing countrys request for assistance Bilateral aid usually comes in the form of government loans or grants The most common form of bilateral aid is tied aid where the donor country provides aid on the condition or requirement that the recipient use the funds to purchase goods or services from the donor country

Canadas Foreign Aid


Canadas foreign aid policy gives aid to poor foreign

countries Foreign assistance is used as a means of encouraging development and progress Canadas Official Development Assistance (ODA) program gives financial aid to under-developed countries in Africa, the Middle East, the Americas, Asia and some countries in central and eastern Europe Assistance is provided through various channels: directly from government to government (bilateral), by supporting non-government organizations (NGOs), by supporting private sector initiatives or multilateral organizations (UN, WHO, UNICEF) efforts

Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)


The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) supports foreign aid projects in over 100 of the poorest countries in the world Promotes sustainability in developing countries Focus upon 6 priorities: basic human needs human rights gender equality democracy/good government, infastructure environmental protection and education

World Health Organization (WHO)


Created in 1948 to help curb the spread of infectious diseases The organization includes 192 member countries who work on vaccination campaigns,technical assistance, surveillance programs, research, and development into methods of control and vaccines for a variety of diseases such as leprosy, measles,hepatitis, AIDS/HIV, Ebola Virus, and H1N1 flu

Controlling Population
Birth Control Family Planning Education Sterilization Abortion One-Child policy Disease

Chinas One Child Policy


China's one child policy was established by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in 1979 to limit communist China's population growth. Although designated a "temporary measure," it continues a quarter-century after its establishment. The policy limits couples to one child. Fines, pressures to abort a pregnancy, and even forced sterilization accompanied second or subsequent pregnancies.